Juanita, a 15-year-old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead.

Juanita, a 15-year-old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?1. Travis is 4-year-old adventurous and curious boy who likes to play in the backyard. Travis often comes up with different ideas to interact with nature, such as catch a bird with a butterfly net, make mud pies with his mother’s garden tools, etc. His parents encourage him to test out his ideas as long as they are not dangerous. Because his parents support his plans, he will probably grow up with:

a. autonomy.

b. initiative.

c. industry.

d. trust.

2. Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche MOST likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?

a. “I am quiet, nice, and friendly.”

b. “I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle.”

c. “I like preschool, especially reading, and I am good in art.”

d. “I am the daughter of Sam and Renee and the sister of William.”

3. Five-year old Joe is crying because his favorite aunt is moving away. His parents are in the kitchen arguing about how to respond to the situation. Joe’s father wants to tell him “big boys don’t cry.” Joe’s mother wants to tell him “it is okay to cry when you feel sad.” According to research, which response will be most helpful for Joe?

a. Joe’s father’s response.

b. Joe’s father’ response, but only because Joe is a boy. For girls, Joe’s mother’s response would be more helpful.

c. Joe’s mother’s response.

d. Joe’s mother’s response, but only because Joe is around preschool age. For older children, Joe’s father’s response would be more helpful.

4. In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and __________.

a. learn to identify others’ emotional states; anticipate what will improve others’ emotional states.

b. learn to regulate their emotional states; teach other children to regulate their emotional states.

c. overcome their innate desire to hurt others; learn to do things for the good of the group.

d. deny their natural selfish tendencies; be concerned with the well-being of other people.

5. Jerome and Hani got up early on Saturday morning and decided to make “breakfast in bed” for their mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally bumped and broke one of their mother’s favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome KNEW that he was going to get into “big trouble,” and he thought that he SHOULD get into big trouble. Hani told him not to worry because Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning, respectively, of Jerome and Hani?

a. Jerome—autonomous morality; Hani—heteronomous morality

b. Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality

c. Jerome—universal law morality; Hani—context-specific morality.

d. Jerome—context-specific morality; Hani—universal law morality.6. According to the social cognitive theory of gender, social influences on gender role development appear to operate mainly through:

a. cognitive processes stimulated by other people.

b. learning processes in the company of other people.

c. biological processes stimulated by social interactions.

d. a complex interaction of biological processes.

7. Which of the following statements is true concerning parenting practices and gender development?

a. Fathers are more consistently given responsibility for the nurturance and physical care of their children.

b. Mothers are more likely than fathers to engage in playful interactions with their children.

c. Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat their sons and daughters differently.

d. Fathers are more involved in socializing their sons than their daughters.

8. Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:

a. there is greater pressure for boys.

b. there is greater pressure for girls.

c. pressure to conform is equal for both boys and girls.

d. neither boys nor girls are pressured by their peers to conform.

9. Suzie just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. When looking at the grades, her father stated, “You are an embarrassment to me! You better get those grades up, or else!” Suzie’s Dad is most likely a(n):

a. authoritarian parent.

b. authoritative parent.

c. indulgent parent.

d. neglectful parent.

10. Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula’s mom’s first response was “Oh, you must be very disappointed.” Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula’s mom is most likely a(n):

a. authoritarian parent.

b. authoritative parent.

c. indulgent parent.

d. neglectful parent.

11. Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard’s dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad’s name and put it in his backpack. Bernard’s dad is most likely a(n):

a. authoritarian parent.

b. authoritative parent.

c. indulgent parent.

d. neglectful parent.

12. Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope states that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were:

a. authoritarian.

b. authoritative.

c. indulgent.

d. neglectful.

13. Research conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005) suggests that:

a. the high control of “authoritarian” Asian parents is best conceptualized as “training” and is distinct from the domineering control that is generally associated with the authoritarian style of parenting.

b. “authoritarian” parenting is “authoritarian” parenting, whether the parent is Asian American, African American, or European American.

c. contrary to many stereotypes, Asian parents are indulgent and permissive.

d. consistent with stereotypes, Asian parents are domineering, controlling, and have rigid/unrealistic expectations for academic achievement in their children.

14. Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. immediate compliance.

b. higher levels of aggression.

c. higher levels of moral internalization.

d. behavioral problems at school and with peers.

15. Which of the following age groups tends to be most negatively affected by the parents’ divorce and why?

a. pre-school children because of their egocentric thinking.

b. k to 2rd graders because they tend to develop loyalty conflicts

c. 3th to 5th graders because they tend to develop psychosomatic symptoms.

d. adolescents because they may have to take on additional family roles.

16. Who may exhibit the worst behavioral problem at home and at school?

a. Anthony with a stepfather is who a very nice person and who use Authoritative parenting style.

b. Bobby with parents who get along very well after the divorce.

c. Cory with parents who always fight and argue but refuse to even consider getting divorce for the sake of Cory.

d. David with parents who have been divorced but continue to fight and argue since divorce.

17. Social class differences in parenting behaviors have been found in the United States and most Western cultures. Low-income and working-class parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class parents.

a. incorporate their children’s perspectives in discipline

b. use reasoning to accompany their discipline

c. use authoritarian parenting style

d. be involved in their children’s education

18. Which statement BEST summarizes Daniel Berlyne’s views about children’s play?

a. Play is important for developing motor skills and coordination.

b. Play is important only because it occupies children during times when they are not learning more important things.

c. Children use play as a way to digest past experiences, to derive meaning from what has happened to them.

d. Children use play as a way to explore new things and as a way to satisfy their natural curiosity about the world.

19. Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of:

a. associative play.

b. constructive play.

c. pretense/symbolic play.

d. sensorimotor/practice play.

20. Eight-year-old Joshua is obese. His excess weight puts him at risk for all of the following, EXCEPT:


b.high blood pressure.

c.type 2 diabetes.


21. What does the research indicate about gender differences in learning disabilities?

a.Boys are more likely to have a learning disability.

b.Girls are more likely to have a learning disability.

c.There are no significant gender differences in learning disabilities.

d.Although boys are referred more often for treatment, girls have higher rates of learning disabilities.

22. Currently, researchers are considering all of the following as possible causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), EXCEPT:low levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.heredity.child abuse.prenatal and postnatal abnormalities.

23. Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his little brother, Craig. He starts to cut it into eight pieces, but his brother says, “Don’t cut it into so many pieces; I can’t eat that many.” Jack laughs but obeys. Craig’s reactions characterize _______ thought, and Jack’s reactions characterize _______ thought.sensorimotor; preoperationalpreoperational; concrete operationalsymbolic; intuitiveconcrete operational; formal operational

24.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?the ability to think in reverse orderlogical reasoningclassification skillsthe ability to think abstractly

25. The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and learning. What other view is this?information-processing approach to cognitionindividual differences study of intelligencebehaviorist concepts of learningVygotsky’s ideas about the importance of culture and context

26. _______ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _______ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.Long-term memory; short-term memoryShort-term memory; long-term memoryControl processes; learner characteristicsLearner characteristics; control processes

27. Achievement tests in this course measure _______ thinking.convergentcreativedivergentanalytical

28. What can educators do to help children become better thinkers?teach them many problem-solving strategiesteach them many different memory aidsmodel many appropriate thinking skillsunderstand the limitations of biology

29.Knowing about knowing is referred to as:metamemory.first-order cognition.metacognition.megacognition.

30. What is the BEST explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?They tend to live in intellectually less stimulating environment.They tend to inherit inferior intelligence genes than majority group members. They tend to experience racism in media coverage of IQ tests.They tend to experience unfair scoring on IQ tests.

31. Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:test predominantly nonverbal skills.reflect the common values of all test takers.reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.use only standardized test items familiar to all test takers.

32. Mr. French wants to know which of the children who have applied for admission to his special science school really have the potential to become successful scientists. He gives them an intelligence test and admits only those who score in the top 10%. What would your text’s author say about Mr. French’s use of an intelligence test?Mr. French is wise to have used an intelligence test to predict students’ career success.Mr. French is misusing the intelligence test, as they are not for predicting career success.Mr. French has discovered an innovative and appropriate use for intelligence tests.Mr. French is using the intelligence test inappropriately, as the test must be given at least twice to show stability of intelligence and predict career success.

33. Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?Protect your children from exposure to lead.Give your children an enriched environment.Make children’s nutrition your number one priority.Do not conceive any children after the age of 40.

34. Carmenita is teaching her son to read by sounding out words in storybooks she reads to him. What approach is she using?whole-languagephonicsbalanced instructionsound-it-out

35. How would an 8-year-old child MOST likely describe himself or herself?“I am 8, and I have a bicycle.”“I am 8, and I have red hair and brown eyes.”“I am nice, and my friends like me a lot.”“I am taller than my brother, but shorter than my mother.”

36. In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are MORE likely than children in early childhood to:

a.compare themselves with their peers.

b.compare themselves with role models.

c.use physical characteristics to describe themselves.

d.use outer states to describe themselves.

37. Tadako’s teachers have steadily been working on her self-esteem by frequently commenting on how nice it is to have Tadako as a member of their classes. Which strategy are these teachers engaging in?

a.emotional support and social approval

b.promoting increased achievement

c.helping Tadako cope with a problem

d.implementing a peer support system

38. Jermaine and Latoya want to help their daughter develop high self-esteem. What should they do?

a.Teach her to turn to adults for help when faced with a problem.

b.Teach her to ignore her problems and they will go away.

c.Teach her to face problems realistically and cope with them.

d.Teach her to turn her problems over to someone who is more advanced at problem solving.

39.Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:



c.shame and doubt.

d.identity diffusion.

40. Tiesha’s behavior is controlled by external rewards and punishments reflecting which level of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

a.preconventional reasoning

b.conventional reasoning

c.interconventional reasoning

d.postconventional reasoning

41. Which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development often involves children adopting their parents’ moral standards?

a.individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

b.heteronomous morality

c.social systems morality

d.mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

42. Your best friend sideswipes a car and drives away without reporting the accident. You do not report it either, even though you worry about the incident. Over the next few days, you decide the relationship with your friend is more important than the owner’s material loss and friends stick together. Your actions suggest that you are in which of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning stages?

a.heteronomous morality

b.individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

c.mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

d.social systems morality

43. To investigate the nature of moral thought, Lawrence Kohlberg presented children with a story in which a character named Heinz faces a moral dilemma: the only way to save his mother’s life is to steal an experimental drug he cannot buy. When Ellie is read the story and asked whether Heinz should have stolen the drug, she states, “No, it is against the law to steal. The husband should find another way to get the drug.” Ellie is in the _______ stage of moral development.

a.mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

b.individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

c.social systems morality

d.universal ethical principles

44. When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against treatment of homosexuals on her campus, Kai says that all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly and equally regardless of any human conditions, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against homosexuals. What is Kai’s likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg?





45. A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says, “Yes, I did steal the documents, and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it.” Lawrence Kohlberg would classify this person as using _______ morality.





46. Carol Gilligan has criticized Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development because:

a.it does not include a role for reasoning about relationships and concern for others.

b.it does not recognize higher-level moral reasoning in certain cultural groups.

c.Kohlberg underestimated the contribution of family relationships to moral development.

d.it places too much emphasis on moral thought and not enough emphasis on moral behavior.

47. In general, the “average male” outperforms the “average female” on all of the following tasks, EXCEPT:





48. Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:





49. As children grow older, parents tend to spend:

a.less time with them, especially in less-educated families.

b.more time with them, especially in helping with homework.

c.about the same amount of time with them, though the nature of the interactions changes significantly.

d.about the same amount of time with them, and the nature of the interactions is similar to those of early childhood.

50. Bella sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bella’s sociometric status is PROBABLY:





51.Blanca is a “bully,” and no one likes to play with her. Blanca’s sociometric status is PROBABLY:





52. Caitlin’s father is concerned that Caitlin is too aggressive in her interactions with other children. She often fights, and she has fewer friends than she used to have. Which of the following strategies might be MOST helpful to Caitlin’s father in addressing this problem?

a.Help Caitlin learn to respond more rapidly in social situations.

b.Help Caitlin learn to interpret ambiguous social situations in nonaggressive ways.

c.Help Caitlin learn to avoid social situations in which she may develop feelings of anger.

d.Help Caitlin learn to disclose her true feelings to peers, even if these feelings reflect negative aspects of the peers’ behavior.

53. It is difficult to know exactly when puberty begins and ends because:

a.it is a sudden process with few distinguishing physical events.

b.it is a gradual process involving multiple distinguishing events.

c.it is completed before the adolescent is aware of what is happening.

d.adolescents do not confide about bodily changes to parents or doctors.

54. The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs ________ for girls than for boys and begins at around age ________ for girls.a.earlier; 9b.earlier; 11c.later; 12d.later; 14

55. Menarche is defined as:a.females’ first menstrual cycle.b.females’ menstrual cyclec.females’ biological changes during adolescence.d.females’ pubertal cycle.

56. Recent research has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to be:a.satisfied with their figures while in high school.b.taller and thinner when they reach high school.c.less popular with males their own age than others.d.depressed, smoke, drink, have eating disorders.

57. Jerome is going through puberty quite early. Research indicates that Jerome is likely to:

a.be rejected by his peers.

b.have a negative self-image.

c.have a positive self-image.

d.be highly successful in his later career.

58. Adolescents tend to respond with “gut” reactions to emotional stimuli, while adults are more likely to respond in more rational, reasoned ways. Recent research suggests that this may be because:

a.adults have a more completely developed prefrontal cortex.

b.adults have a more completely developed amygdala.

c.adolescents have a less completely developed cerebellum.

d.adolescents have a less completely developed occipital lobe.

59.Juanita engaged in sexual intercourse at the age of 13. Research indicates that Juanita is likely to:

a.develop a more positive sexual identity.

b.drink, use drugs, and be delinquent.

c.marry much earlier than other girls.

d.abstain from sex later in adolescence.

60. Which of the following MOST accurately describes the situation for the children of single teenage mothers?

a.They are less likely to live in poverty than are children born to single older women.

b.They start out at higher physical risk than children born to older mothers but catch up by elementary school.

c.They are more likely to have low birth weights, neurological problems and childhood illness.

d.They are not found to be successful in education or to experience other positive outcomes.

61.Which of the following factors is the MOST common negative result of being an unmarried adolescent mother?

a.the disruption in education and career development

b.the social stigma attached to both the mother and child

c.the decreased fertility associated with having a child at a young age

d.the high rate of divorce when the mother eventually decides to marry

62. Patricia and Fernando are worried that their daughter’s sex education program will encourage her to have sex because the class included information about contraceptive use. Research suggests that:

a.their fears are unfounded.

b.they are wise to be concerned, because there is a moderate relationship between knowledge about contraceptives and the tendency to engage in sexual intercourse at an earlier age.

c.they are wise to be concerned, because there is a mild relationship between knowledge about contraceptives and the likelihood to have more sexual partners.

d.they should immediately take their daughter out of the class, because there is considerable research to suggest that contraceptive-use sex education programs lead to higher sexual activity and a higher likelihood to contract a sexually transmitted infection.

63. Juanita, a 15-year-old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?

a.personal fable

b.imaginary audience

c.fight-or-flight response

d.top-dog phenomenon

64. You are trying to make competent decision-makers of your adolescents. What technique should you use?a.Allow them to participate in practical decisions they can control.b.Ask them to develop both positive and negative outcomes for decisions they make.c.Give them a series of abstract problems to solve.d.Allow them to show poor judgment, then discuss why their decisions were wrong.65. Antonio has just dropped out of high school. In view of what we know about Latino American youths, what is MOST likely to be Antonio’s explanation for why he dropped out?

a.“I don’t like school.”

b.“I need drug treatment.”

c.“I need a job to help my family.”

d.“I have no chance of going to college.”

66. Ramon’s parents have decided that he will enroll in the state college near their hometown. Ramon has not really thought about the issue much himself, and he will probably do what they advise. According to the psychologist James Marcia, accepting his parents’ advice will put Ramon into:

a. identity diffusion.

b. identity foreclosure.

c. identity moratorium.

d. identity achievement.

67. Harrison has thought for a long time about his future plans. He considered going to a technical college, but he also considered the value of getting a liberal arts degree from a 4-year college. The decision caused Harrison a lot of anxiety. Although, he is attending the technical college for now, he is still wondering if his choice was the correct one and continuing to search his options. According to James Marcia, Harrison is now in a state of:

a. identity diffusion.

b. identity foreclosure.

c. identity moratorium.

d. identity achievement.

68. Martha’s daughter has come to her for advice about what to do with her future. Her mother explains that any decisions made now are not permanent and that her daughter will continue to reevaluate her decisions for the rest of her life. Her daughter is relieved to hear that she does not need to decide “everything” now, but she is not comfortable knowing that these important decisions will continue to come up in the future. Martha is trying to help her daughter understand that true identity development:

a. requires exploring one’s individuality.

b. may not be stable after teen resolution.

c. requires foreclosure in early adulthood.

d. never really happens because we are never sure who we are

69. Self-assertion and separateness are two dimensions of:

a. foreclosure.

b. achievement.

c. individuality.

d. connectedness.

70. Which of the following would likely be said by a parent who is enabling adolescent identity development?

a. “I will not allow you to make such a huge mistake. You will not be allowed to do such a thing while you are living with me!”

b. “You have to learn to think through problems on your own. I can’t make your decisions for you, so let me know what you’ve decided.”

c. “I really don’t feel that I should have to be involved here. You handle this decision on your own.”

d. “I know that you feel you don’t have any other options, but I disagree with what you are considering. I’d like for us to discuss this in more detail.”

71. The identity of first-generation immigrants is secure and usually stable. Any feelings of being American that they develop are usually based on:

a. learning English.

b. developing social networks beyond their group of friends.

c. becoming culturally competent.

d. all of these.

72. Which of the following would wise parents do as their adolescent children push for control?

a. Let their children control areas of their lives that they understand.

b. Monitor but not interfere in their children’s lives.

c. Let children have primary control over important decisions in their lives.

d. There is no rule for this situation; each family must decide what is best for them.

73. According to research, adolescents who express disagreement with parents explore identity development _______ adolescents who do not express disagreement with their parents.

a. less actively than

b. equally as active as

c. more actively than

d. more erratically than

74. Which of the following statements does the new model of parent-adolescent relationships emphasize?

a. Parents serve as important attachment figures and support systems during adolescence.

b. Parent-adolescent conflict is intense and stressful throughout adolescence.

c. As adolescents mature, they detach from their parents.d. As adolescents mature, they move into a world of autonomy apart from parents.

75. One benefit of adolescent-parent conflict is that it:

a. teaches adolescents that their parents are not perfect.

b. helps adolescents in developing greater autonomy.

c. convinces adolescents that their parents are wiser than they thought.

d. teaches adolescents how to be more effective in the way they argue.

76. Given what we know about the influence of peers on adolescents, an adolescent’s desire to spend a great deal of time with a clique is probably:

a. positive, because cliques have good effects on self-esteem.

b. negative, because cliques tend to exaggerate individuals’ bad characteristics.

c. neither positive nor negative, because the key influence is other aspects of an adolescent’s life before he or she joins a clique.

d. either positive or negative, depending on what behavior the clique promotes.

77. _______ refers to the coexistence of distinct ethnic and cultural groups in the same society.

a. Dualism

b. Pluralism

c. Bilateralism

d. Continuism

78. Some parents are strongly opposed to bilingual education in their schools. They argue that immigrant children should learn to speak English, so they can function better in our society. Parents who hold this view are showing their preference that ethnic minorities be:

a. isolated within our society.

b. assimilated into our society.

c. part of our pluralistic society.

d. accommodated by the educational system.

79. The double disadvantage suffered by ethnic minority adolescents consists of:

a. the lack of clear rites of passage and identity confusion.

b. diversity and difference.

c. prejudice and poverty.

d. bias and assimilation.

80. Deanna, a depressed adolescent, is considering suicide. She is:

a. most likely to use a gun as a method of attempting suicide.

b. likely to have a history of difficult relations with her family.

c. more likely to succeed in her attempt than is an adolescent boy.

d. an exception, in that few adolescents consider such a drastic action.

81. James, an American, will most likely consider himself an adult when he ________, whereas Nelson, an African, will most likely consider himself an adult when he _______.

a. moves out of the house; graduates from college.

b. obtains financial independence; gets married.

c. turns 21; gets married.

d. gets married; buys his first home.

82. Lettie is 30 years old and curious about how satisfied she will be with her life when she is elderly. The best predicator of this is her current:

a. emotional health.

b. physical health

c. socioeconomic status.

d. level of romantic satisfaction.

83. Deb is both depressed and obese. One way she can combat both of these problems is to:

a. get at least 8 hours of sleep per night.

b. reduce her intake of sugar.

c. engage in regular exercise.

d. take an antidepressant medication.

84. Kelli is thinking about marrying Ron. Kelli asked Ron about his attitude on extramarital sex, and Ron said he thought that it was wrong. Kelli looked up the 1994 sexual survey conducted by Robert Michael and his colleagues and found that ___ of married men have been unfaithful.

a. 75%

b. 40%

c. 25%

d. 10%

85. What do researchers believe today about the causes of sexual orientation?

a. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by biology.

b. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by learning and experience.

c. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by social and emotional factors.

d. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by a combination of factors.

86. What advice about bicultural identity would the psychologist Laura Brown give to a gay or lesbian couple?

a. You will cope best if you isolate yourselves as a couple and avoid contact with other people.

b. You will cope best if you maintain strong contact with both the gay community and the heterosexual mainstream.

c. You will cope best if you stay within your circle of gay and lesbian friends and avoid frequent contact with heterosexual people.

d. You will cope best if you stay within your circle of heterosexual friends and avoid strong associations with the gay community.

87. Lauren was recently a victim of rape and is receiving counseling. Knowing the effects of rape, her counselor can predict that there is a 1 in _________ chance that Lauren will suffer some type of sexual dysfunction or reduced sexual desire if she does not receive effective counseling.

a. 2

b. 5

c. 10

d. 20

88. What percentage of college men admit to forcing a woman into a sexual act?

a. 25

b. 33

c. 50

d. 75

89. Piaget’s claim that adults are fully formal operational thinkers seems to be:

a. an inaccurate description of many adults because they are in concrete operational thinkers.

b. true only for a very small sample of professional adults with higher education.

c. true, except for adults with mental defects or diseases.

d. completely inaccurate of most adults regardless of their educational levels.

90. William Perry offers a perspective on the ways young adults’ thinking differs from adolescents’ thinking. In his view, adult thinking is more:

a. dualistic.

b. polar.

c. reflective.

d. absolute.


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