Effect of Enlightenment on America
Question 4 Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes one effect of Enlightenment on America. American thinkers agreed with John Locke’s idea that political authority was divinely ordained. Cotton Mather and the Boston physician Nicholas Boyleston fought against smallpox inoculation. Some ministers combined Lockean political principles with Calvinist theology in order to attack the role of bishops and vest power in the laity. European Enlightenment ideas had little impact on Americans until 1750. ——————————————————————————–Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Which of the following does not help to explain the diminishing effectiveness of Reconstruction in the South? Northerners tired of the expense and violence that supporting Reconstruction engendered. Racism among moderate Republicans led them to ascribe Republican defeats in the South to the incompetence of black politicians. A severe depression in 1873 distracted Northerners from the social and racial issues of Reconstruction. The expanded presence of federal troops and officials from 1875 to 1877 brought about an escalation in southern terrorist retaliation. ——————————————————————————–Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The movement toward secession in the winter of 1860-1861 was most rapid in… the Upper South. South Carolina. Virginia. Georgia. ——————————————————————————–Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American party system by the early 1840s? As the 1840 election demonstrated, the Whigs held the edge in party discipline and mass loyalty. The two parties offered virtually the same social and economic platform but employed differing campaign styles to attract voters. the practice of Americans voting for a particular party along ethnic and religious lines began to emerge. The Democrats had a major advantage in their wealth and the cohesiveness of their leadership and support. ——————————————————————————–Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Spanish Franciscan missionaries… tried to impose cultural assimilation and forced labor along with religious conversion of indigenous peoples. became large landowners who collected tribute from the Indians. outlawed slavery in the Spanish colonies. adapted to native culture almost completely. ——————————————————————————–Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Most colonists’ reaction to the Navigation Acts was to… comply with its laws out of fear of reprisals. welcome these measures as a way of strengthening the bonds of empire, which would protect them from the French and Spanish. bribe customs officials to ignore the regulations. resent and resist the trade restrictions. ——————————————————————————–Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)According to the Constitution, which branch of government is responsible for readmitting states that have seceded from the Union? the Constitution does not address this question. the executive branch. the judicial branch. the legislative branch. ——————————————————————————–Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)A peace treaty was not signed until nearly two years after the surrender at Yorktown because… the American negotiators sought delays so that state governments could coordinate their demands. France and Spain stalled, hoping for some major naval victory or territorial conquest. members of Parliament could not reach agreement on the concessions that they were willing to make. the usual delays in transatlantic communications prolonged the process. ——————————————————————————–Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)George Washington’s success as a general is most accurately explained by… his political astuteness and ability to act decisively. his strong personality, which enabled him to override the decisions of Congress. a lack of any competitors among the other Patriot officers. his willingness to overlook the actions of discontented soldiers, which endeared him to his troops. ——————————————————————————–Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In their petitions to Congress in the 1830s, abolitionists frequently called for… appropriating funds to compensate slave owners for emancipating their slaves. abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia. ending the Atlantic slave trade. impeaching any president who condoned slavery and barring slave owners from serving in Congress. ——————————————————————————–Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In the aftermath of the nullification crisis, President Jackson responded to southern concerns about the tariff by… insisting that high protective tariffs were in the national interest. attempting unsuccessfully to have Congress repeal the Tariff of 1832. persuading Congress to pass new legislation enacting a compromise tariff to gradually reduce duties. ignoring the issue. ——————————————————————————–Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)During their first couple of years in the Jamestown colony, the English migrants… doubled the size of their population. produced an agricultural surplus–enough to trade with the Native Americans. lived remarkably disease-free. suffered from famine and diseases that killed more than half the population. ——————————————————————————–Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Before becoming president, Thomas Jefferson viewed the westward migration of Americans with… apprehension because he believed the country was growing too large to be governed as a single republic. disapproval because he sympathized with the plight of the Indians who would be displaced by white settlement of the West. disdain because, as a cultured aristocrat, he considered the settlers to be uncouth rabble who would only cause trouble with the Indians and destroy the West’s natural environment. unqualified approval because he celebrated the pioneer farmer and hoped to see the West developed by independent yeomen. ——————————————————————————–Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Between 1800 and 1860 white planters moved to the lower South to… transform the West into a free labor society. recreate the conditions of slavery. invest in agricultural development. flee antislavery laws in the upper South. ——————————————————————————–Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The immediate cause for the Texan Americans’ declaration of independence on March 2, 1836 was that… the Texan "war party" sabotaged the efforts of Stephen F. Austin and other "peace party" leaders who were then negotiating with the Mexican government for greater autonomy. the new president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana, cut short Stephen F. Austin’s negotiations with the Mexican government and appointed a military commandant for Texas. Mexican troops commanded by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana destroyed the American garrison defending the Alamo. Texans prisoners at Goliad were massacred by Mexican troops commanded by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana. ——————————————————————————–Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Stamp Act Congress held in New York in 1765… was a failure because the nine colonies represented could not agree on a unified policy. protested loss of American rights and liberties and declared that only elected representatives could impose taxes on colonists. formulated a set of resolves that threatened rebellion against Britain. accepted the constitutionality of the Sugar Act but not the Stamp Act. ——————————————————————————–Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In early nineteenth-century America… the rise in political status of ordinary white men was accompanied by a decline in the political rights of women and free blacks. most newly organized free states granted the right to vote to adult black men who owned specified amounts of freehold property. Pennsylvania and New York allowed all free adult black males to vote. women were granted the right to vote only in New Jersey in 1807. ——————————————————————————–Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The ancestors of the Native American peoples… always lived in the Western Hemisphere. migrated by sea from Polynesia. migrated by sea from China. migrated by land from northeastern Asia. ——————————————————————————–Question 22 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Mayflower Compact… was the first â??constitutionâ?? adopted in North America. was the Pilgrims’ declaration of independence from England. proclaimed the Pilgrims’ new religious denomination, known as the Separatist Church. pledged the settlers of the Plymouth Colony to create a democratic form of government. ——————————————————————————–Question 23 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)One social change resulting from the Industrial Revolution in early nineteenth century America was that members of the upper class… came to hold the same cultural and religious values as wage earners in contrast to the elitism that in the eighteenth century had kept the gentry and the "common people" apart. openly distanced themselves by values and lifestyle from wage earners in contrast to the shared cultural and religious values that had united the gentry and ordinary folk in the eighteenth century. became more hypocritical, pretending to share cultural and religious values with wage earners, but actually behaving very differently. tended to claim that they had risen "from rags to riches" and to flaunt their crude taste and rough manners in contrast to "gentlemanly" values of the eighteenth-century elites. ——————————————————————————–Question 24 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Around 1820-1840, the economic conditions for casual day laborers in American cities… improved because they gained greater geographical mobility and were in high demand on new construction projects everywhere. held steady, neither improving nor worsening. bore the brunt of unemployment during business depressions. improved slightly because, even though their wages were declining relative to living costs, they benefited from a heightened sense of charity among the middle class. ——————————————————————————–Question 25 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Northwest Ordinance of 1787… prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory. funded an exploratory party to locate the Northwest Passage. provided for the eventual creation of eight to ten new states in the Northwest Territory. required compulsory elementary education in each new township in the Northwest Territory. ——————————————————————————–Question 26 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes immigration during the 1840s and 1850s? Most immigrants settled in the South to take advantage of jobs in industry and agriculture. Most of the Irish who arrived were poverty-stricken peasants. The largest group of immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe. The poorest immigrants came from Wales and Scotland. ——————————————————————————–Question 27 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)At the same time that Parliament imposed the Stamp Act, it also passed the Quartering Act, which required… Americans to vacate their houses or take in British troops on the demand of any commander. colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops. that Americans convicted of treason be hanged and â??quarteredâ??; that is, cut into four pieces by the hangman. that collectors of the stamp tax receive a commission of one-quarter of the revenue they took in. ——————————————————————————–Question 28 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)In the election of 1864, Lincoln… won by a slim margin, thanks to the votes of Union soldiers. was swept to victory by Sherman’s victory at Atlanta. won despite the fact that three out of every four Union soldiers voted against him. lost the popular vote to McClellan, but won the electoral vote. ——————————————————————————–Question 29 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)All of the following are rights guaranteed by the first ten amendments to the Constitution except… the right to a jury trial. the right to vote. the right to bear arms. freedom of speech. ——————————————————————————–Question 30 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Martin Van Buren’s most significant contribution to American political history in the 1820s was his… pioneering work in making party discipline an effective tool for governing in a democracy. behind-the-scenes efforts to settle the confused election of 1824 by putting John Quincy Adams in the White House and making Henry Clay secretary of state. development of the techniques of mass electioneering that brought about Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828. 1827 book Democracy in America, which showed how democracy could work in American society. ——————————————————————————–Question 31 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)On the eve of European colonization of the Americas, most Western Europeans lived in… small, relatively isolated, rural communities. booming new cities and towns. the older cathedral cities. the castles that dotted the countryside. ——————————————————————————–Question 32 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo… was rejected by the US Senate. prohibited slavery in all territories ceded by Mexico, including Texas. ceded Alta, California; New Mexico; and Texas north of the Nueces River to the United States, in addition to requiring Mexico to pay reparations of more than $50 million. purchased more than one-third of Mexico’s territory for $15 million. ——————————————————————————–Question 33 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)A successful, full-scale revolt was nearly impossible for colonial-era slaves to achieve primarily because… even the Indians would refuse to help them if they escaped. whites were armed and, except in coastal South Carolina, outnumbered slaves. whites enlisted Native Americans to track down rebellious slaves. revolt would endanger the slaves’ communities and families. ——————————————————————————–Question 34 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the British colonial frontier before 1750? Hundreds of British colonists moved into the area west of the Appalachians. The Iroquois covenant chain broke down, and the confederacy’s power diminished. A lack of natural transportation routes kept the British east of the Appalachians. The French abandoned their fur-trading forts in the Ohio region. ——————————————————————————–Question 35 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Puritans in late sixteenth-century England… denied the concept that everyone had a callingâ?? from God. incorporated into their religion many of the traditional Roman Catholic practices, such as burning incense and praying to dead saints. championed literacy so that everyone could read and interpret the Bible. gave final authority over religious doctrine to bishops and synods. ——————————————————————————–Question 36 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Missouri Compromise of 1820… resulted from the conciliatory efforts of Congressman James Tallmadge of New York. provided for Maine to enter the Union as a free state in 1820, and Missouri to enter as a slave state the following year. prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory south of latitude 36Â°30Â´. convinced the aged and retired Thomas Jefferson that the peaceful extinction of slavery by mutual agreement was now in sight. ——————————————————————————–Question 37 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Mob violence against abolitionists… was confined to border and southern cities such as Baltimore, St. Louis, New Orleans, and Nashville. was sometimes led by well-to-do "gentlemen of property and standing." targeted only the free black communities and the homes of prominent abolitionist spokespersons. never resulted in the death of an abolitionist spokesperson or free black. ——————————————————————————–Question 38 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)A famous Native American who wanted to unite the tribes east of the Mississippi into a confederation during the late 1700s, and was killed in the War of 1812, was: Sitting Bull Tecumseh Geronimo ——————————————————————————–Question 39 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)By 1840 the South was on the cutting edge of the Market Revolution because… it produced and exported 1.5 million bales of raw cotton, over two-thirds of the world supply. planters were using European immigrants as industrial workers. planters were building factories to process cotton. southern society was dominated by free labor. ——————————————————————————–Question 40 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)Benjamin Franklin… received an unusually thorough education in England, which put him in touch with Enlightenment ideas unknown to most Americans. was a fervent advocate of the Enlightenment but claimed to be equally influenced by the Bible. was the son of a devout Philadelphia Quaker. founded a club of mutual improvement in Philadelphia to discuss moral and political questions. ——————————————————————————–Question 41 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The three-day Battle of Gettysburg resulted in… a decline in northern popular support for the war. Democratic victories in state and local elections in Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Lee’s loss of over half his Army of Northern Virginia. the Confederate elections of 1863 to turn sharply against supporters of Jefferson Davis. ——————————————————————————–Question 42 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The plantation elite were characterized by all of the following criteria except… roughly three thousand families comprised of the plantation elite category. plantation elites owned more than 1,000 slaves. plantation elites owned huge tracts of fertile land. plantation elites were both traditional aristocrats from the Old South and market entrepreneurs of the New South. ——————————————————————————–Question 43 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison… attacked the US Constitution because it condoned slavery. was a minister who came to his antislavery convictions through the evangelical crusades of the 1820s. demanded the immediate abolition of slavery, with federally funded compensation for former slaveholders. criticized the colonizationists for moving too slowly in their efforts to emancipate slaves. ——————————————————————————–Question 44 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Glorious Revolution in England and America… had little impact on either England or North America apart from deposing the Stuarts and barring Roman Catholics from the English throne. contributed significantly to the creation of a new empire based on commerce, with a curb on royal monopolies, encouragement of enterprising merchants, and development of the American colonies as a source of wealth. created democratic governments in Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland, but not in England. represented a major step toward democracy in both England and the North American colonies. ——————————————————————————–Question 45 (Multiple Choice Worth 2 points)The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following? Abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia. Adoption of a strong fugitive slave law. The organization of the New Mexico and Utah territories on the basis of popular sovereignty. Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory. ——————————————————————————–Question 46 (Essay Worth 10 points)The narrative suggests that the war for American independence was not inevitable, that the British empire could have been saved. Do you agree? At what point during the imperial crisis was peaceful compromise possible? ——————————————————————————–Question 47 (Essay Worth 10 points)In 1860, the institution of slavery was firmly entrenched in the United States; by 1865, it was dead. How did this happen? How did Union policy toward slavery and enslaved people change over the course of the war? Why did it change? ——————————————————————————–Question 48 (Essay Worth 10 points)Weigh the relative importance of the Industrial and Market revolutions in changing the American economy. In what ways was the economy different in 1860 from what it had been in 1800? How would you explain those differences? ——————————————————————————–Question 49 (Essay Worth 10 points)Explain why there were no major witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon’s Rebellion in New England. Consider the possible social, economic, and religious causes of both phenomena.