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Reading Assignments

· Read the book of “Public Policy Making, Process & Principles” by Gerston, Chapter 3, (particularly his discussion on substantive and symbolic policy). 

· Read the book of “Public Policy in the United States” by Rushefsky, Chapter 1

· Read the PDF documented I attached by Kingdon – The Revised Model Theory (on pages 86 to 88).

· Read the book of “Understanding the Public Policy” by Dye, readings: Chapters 3 

The following below are two recent issues that have generated a wide range of national attention and debates. Do an analysis of these two policy issues about how they got on the policy agenda with differing results. You can use search engines such as google, yahoo, etc. if you need to find additional information on these two policies. Just make sure you add it to the reference and use in-text citation

First Policy:

In 2018 the House proposed the Border Security and Immigration Reform Act of 2018 supported by President Trump as part of the negotiation on an immigration bill that would address the situation of Dreamers. The bill was a so-called ‘compromise’ immigration bill, but it met with grass roots rallies opposing the House proposals and seeking provisions that would allow many current illegal residents to apply for citizenship. Current immigration policy seems to be ineffective primarily because of under-funding and opposition from many interest groups. The immigration bill was failed to pass.  

Second Policy:

In 2009, President Obama promoted a healthcare reform bill that met with opposition from the republican congressional delegates, business interest groups, and grass roots groups. He was successful in getting a scaled down version passed. 


Using the theories discussed in this week’s readings (Kingdon, Kushefsky, Gerston, & Dye) discuss the process for getting policy on the public agenda, how the policy is formulated, and look at the challenges in the policy formulation process. Contrast and/or compare the formulation process involved in the two policies. Be sure to talk about Gerston’s substantive and symbolic responses to issues. Be sure to talk about Kingdon’s Revised Model (This is a key resource). Be sure to talk about Dye’s discussion in Chapter 3 particularly on non-decisions and the media influence along. Also talk about Rushefsky’s discussion on the policy process (on pages 4-17). Do not describe the legislation in my paper but you can analyze in terms of the theory and cite the class readings. 

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