Janice is rehabilitating an ecosystem and wants to encourage moss reproduction

Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Archaea differ from bacteria except for the following characteristic: a) They have a different type of ribosomal RNA b) They have chemically different cell walls c) They are prokaryotes d) They do not cause common diseases e) none of the above

Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Jason is a farmer developing new varieties of vegetables and she wishes totest the efficiency of water uptake by some vegetable varieties. What tissue should she monitor? a) Vascular tissue. b) Dermal tissue. c) Ground issue. d) Meristematic tissue. e) None of the above.

Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Janice is rehabilitating an ecosystem and wants to encourage moss reproduction (not quite likely, as ecosystem recovery is a HUGE project). What would be the consequence if she plucked moss sporophytes and planted them in the ground? a) They would produce spores that would form new sporophytes. b) They would produce gametes that would develop into gametophytes. c) They would fail to thrive as they depend on gametophytes for nourishment. d) They would produce spores that would develop into gametophytes. e) They would fail to reproduce because mosses require water for sperm transit.

Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Dana was studying viral DNA. Which of the following would she NOT detect? a) Adenine. b) Guanine. c) Ribose. d) Cytosine. e) Thymine.

Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Ethan is studying viral and bacterial diseases. Which of the following is NOT an accurate comparison of bacteria and viruses? a) Most viruses enter cells whereas most bacteria do not. b) Bacterial genes are made of DNA whereas viral genes may be made of DNA or RNA. c) Bacterial infections are more susceptible to drugs. d) Bacteria may secrete toxins whereas viruses do not. e) Bacterial genes are made of DNA whereas viruses lack genes and use host cell genes.

Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) The body of most fungi is composed of a mass of hyphae called a: a) Mushroom b) Soma c) Mycelium d) Fungoid e) none of the above

Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If a gorilla has somatic cells containing 48 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be found in its gametes? a) 23 b) 24 c) 48 d) 96 e) none of the above

Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) What is a unique feature of ferns in comparison with angiosperms? a) One type of spore is produced. b) Gametophytes are part of the life cycle. c) Embryos are contained in seeds. d) Flowers are very tiny. e) Sporophytes are not dependent for nourishment on gametophytes.

Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Biologists estimate that perhaps up to 30 million different species exist on Earth. These numbers of organisms illustrate: a) diversity of life b) unity of life c) theory of evolution d) natural selection e) none of the above

Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Two parents pass on their genes to offspring in: a) asexual reproduction b) sexual reproduction c) mitosis d) meiosis e) both c and d are correct

Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Grace over-watered her plants, causing an extreme hypotonic environment for the plant cells. What protects the plant cells from bursting? a) Plasma membrane. b) Vacuole. c) Vesicle. d) Cytoskeleton. e) Cell wall.

Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Ava had a pap smear of the cells of her uterine cervix and a pathologist examining the cells was of the opinion that they were dysplastic. What does this mean? a) The cells are normal. b) The cells are malignant. c) The cells are metastatic. d) The cells are precancerous. e) The cells have undergone progression.

Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Shannon is a botanist who observed stomatal closing of plants under daytime drought conditions. Why would the stomata close? a) Loss of potassium from companion cells. b) Loss of gasses from guard cells. c) Influx of potassium into guard cells. d) Influx of water into guard cells. e) To prevent loss of water from guard cells.

Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of the following is a scientific hypothesis? a) The biologist measured 300 fish. b) The ecologist objected to damming of the river. c) The doctor ordered 20 blood tests. d) The results of the lab tests showed that the lake was polluted. e) The geneticist proposed that some forms of heart disease are inherited.

Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Robert is an ecologist studying the pathway that a pollutant, mercury, takes as it moves through the environment, including its consumption by fish, birds, and people. What unit of nature is he studying? a) Community. b) Species. c) Population. d) Ecosystem. e) Colonial organisms.

Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Transport proteins that facilitate the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane are: a) carrier proteins b) enzymes c) aquaporins d) receptor proteins e) none of the above

Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If you examined a microscopic preparation of a cell that showed pairs of chromatids with constrictions in the center, what term would you apply to the constrictions? a) Centromeres. b) Centrioles. c) Metaphase plates. d) Microtubule organizing centers. e) Centrosomes.

Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Charleen noticed that some plants in her nursery were falling over. What cell type may be defective? a) Sieve tube. b) Companion cells. c) Collenchyma cells. d) Meristematic cells. e) Parenchyma cells.

Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If you observed some ciliates such as paramecia under the microscope you might notice the process of conjugation. What is the outcome of conjugation? a) Transverse fission of the cell. b) Fusion of two cells into one. c) Sexual reproduction of an offspring cell.. d) Promotion of genetic variability. e) Binary fission.

Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Scientists have estimated that in a teaspoon of contaminated water there may be five billion viruses. How do viruses compare in size to other units? Arrange the following in order of size from greatest to least: (1) Virus, (2) bacterium, (3) human blood cell, (4) prion. a) 1>2>3>4. b) 4>1>2>3. c) 3>2>1>4. d) 2>3>1>4.

Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Abe is a technician instructed to photograph some chromatids. How would he distinguish a chromatid from a chromosome? a) A chromatid is the portion of a chromosome on each side of its centromere. b) A chromatid is the portion of a chromosome on each side of its kinetochore. c) A chromatid is a twin of another chromatid resulting from chromosomal copying, both being joined at the centromere region. d) A chromatid is a chromosome that has condensed into a DNA super coil prior to cell division, whereas a chromosome is uncondensed. e) A chromatid is the structure at each end of a dividing cell that provides microtubules for moving chromosomes during cell division.

Question 22 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If you encountered a large leafy-looking fern plant, you might notice tiny dots on the undersides of the leaves. If you removed these dots what might be the consequence? a) Failure of photosynthesis. b) Destruction of the tiny fern embryos. c) Destruction of the tiny fern zygotes. d) Destruction of the tiny fern gametophytes. e) Destruction of the tiny fern sporangia.

Question 23 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Grace spent long hours in the sun and damaged the DNA of her skin cells so that the damaged cells could no longer effectively make new skin cells. How would you classify the damaged DNA segment? a) Intron. b) Exon. c) Telomere. d) Transposon. e) Mutation.

Question 24 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which statement is not true about a karyotype? a) Chromosomes are arranged in matched pairs. b) All eukaryotic karyotypes contain 46 chromosomes. c) Chromosomes are linear in appearance. d) Karyotypes can be used to screen for chromosome abnormalities. e) none of the above

Question 25 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) What do the processes of active transport and facilitated process have in common? a) need for energy called ATP b) use of transport proteins c) movement of solutes from a greater to a lesser concentration of solutes d) movement of solutes from a lesser to a greater concentration of solutes e) two of the above

Question 26 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Ethan found a large old stump in the forest and was able to determine the age of the tree. What ma) Vascular cambium. b) Cork cambium. c) Secondary xylem. d) Secondary phloem. e) Pith.

Question 27 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of these cells contains the full complement of hereditary material for its species? a) egg b) sperm c) somatic cell d) muscle cell e) two of the above

Question 28 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of the following statements is not true of lichens? a) They are considered an example of mutualism b) They are able to invade the harshest habitats c) It is a symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus d) They exclusively reproduce by sexual reproduction e) two of the above

Question 29 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of the following is not a role of normal microbiota? a) They thwart pathogenic bacteria b) They secrete substances that destroy cells c) They prevent overgrowth of yeast d) They produce nutrients such as vitamin K

Question 30 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) All the genetic information in one complete set of hereditary material is the: a) chromatin b) chromatids c) genome d) genotype e) phenotype

Question 31 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of these is not a difference between plant and animal cells? a) Plant cells have a rigid cell wall outside the plasma membrane. b) Plant cells lack vacuoles. c) Animal cells have no chloroplasts. d) Animal cells have only a plasma membrane surrounding the cell. e) none of the above

Question 32 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Abigail is a technician extracting DNA for analysis. In which of the following would she expect to find only a haploid number of chromosomes? a) Zygote. b) Spore. c) Sporophyte. d) Kidney cell. e) Skin cell.

Question 33 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) When the heights of ten plants are added together and this total is divided by the number of plants (10), the result is the: a) percentage b) mean c) mode d) standard deviation e) a bell curve

Question 34 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Angel is a biologist studying a lake ecosystem in which leaf-eating insects are consumed by fish, which are consumed by snakes, which are consumed by hawks. In this example, how would you classify a fish? a) Producer. b) Decomposer. c) Primary consumer. d) Secondary consumer. e) Tertiary consumer.

Question 35 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) June is developing new strains of horticultural plants, and she wants to check the chromosome numbers of her specimens. What would be the chromosome composition of the petal, pollen, and megaspore? a) Diploid, haploid, haploid. b) Diploid, haploid, diploid. c) Haploid, diploid, haploid. d) Haploid, haploid, diploid. e) Diploid, diploid, triploid.

Question 36 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which statement best explains why it is possible to spread cancer the same as an infectious disease? a) Cancer cells reproduce like a virus b) Cancer cells are highly infectious c) Certain viruses cause cancer d) Viruses make cancer infectious e) hint: “e” is NOT the answer

Question 37 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Noah is a technician assigned to photograph chromosomes. At what stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes sufficiently condensed that they FIRST become visible under the light microscope? a) Anaphase. b) Telophase. c) Interphase. d) Prophase. e) Metaphase.

Question 38 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) The common mushroom found in foods produces sexual spores in structures with the following name: a) Basidia b) Zygotes c) Conidia d) Asci e) Portobello

Question 39 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If a scientist finds that her experimental data do not support her hypothesis or a particular scientific theory, she should: a) modify the hypothesis and perform another experiment b) give up on that hypothesis and find another area of science to research c) work to show that the scientific theory is incorrect d) both a and b e) both b and c

Question 40 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Fredrica examined a specimen of a new plant species and noticed that it had very few guard cells. What might this suggest? a) The plant was adapted to living under very wet conditions. b) The plant was not prone to insect attack. c) The plant would be lacking in companion cells. d) The plant would not require companion cells but may have them. e) The plant was adapted to drought conditions.

Question 41 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) DNA is in the form of a ladder with rungs of equal length, although the rungs may vary in composition. What accounts for the equality of length? a) All rungs are attached to a phosphate. b) All rungs contain either pyrimidines or purines, which are equal in size. c) All rungs contain a small ribose and a large deoxyribose. d) All rungs contain a small pyrimidine and a large purine. e) All rungs are twisted into a helix.

Question 42 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which statement is true of viruses? a) They all lack DNA b) They are obligate parasites c) They have a complex cytoplasm d) They have a cell wall like prokaryotes e) none of the above

Question 43 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If you examined a sample of sea water under a microscope you might observe tiny “shelled” organisms often used to add luster to fingernail polish or paint. What group would you be observing? a) Red Algae. b) Foraminifera. c) Dinoflagellates. d) Diatoms. e) Sporozoans.

Question 44 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) If a DNA strand with the base sequence CAGCAT were to unzip and be replicated, what would be the base sequence of its OLD complementary strand and its NEW complementary strand? a) Old = CAGCAT, new = GTCGTA b) Old = GTCGTA, new = GTCGTA c) Old = TAGCAT, new = TAGCAT d) Old = ATGCTG, new = ATGCTG e) Old = CAGCAT, new = ATGCTG

Question 45 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Maryanne was studying an ecosystem containing fungi, grass, and deer. How would she classify fungi, grass, and deer? a) Producers, consumers, decomposers. b) Consumers, decomposers, producers. c) Decomposers, producers, consumers. d) Consumers, producers, decomposers. e) Producers, decomposers, consumers.

Question 46 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) In the classification of living things, which list shows categories sequenced from least inclusive to most inclusive? a) Genus, species, phylum, kingdom, domain. b) Genus, species, phylum, domain kingdom. c) Species, genus, phylum, kingdom, domain. d) Species, genus. domain, kingdom, phylum. e) Species, genus, kingdom, domain, phylum.

Question 47 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Lori was studying the effects of magnesium of the growth rate of carrot crops. She measured the growth rate of a group of carrots given magnesium in comparison to the growth rate of a group of carrots not given magnesium, but otherwise grown under the same conditions. In this experiment, which is the control? a) The carrots given the magnesium. b) The same conditions of growing for both groups. c) The growth rate. d) The group not given magnesium. e) The magnesium.

Question 48 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Angelo was studying drinking water pollution. Which of the following would be an example of a category of quantitative data? a) Color. b) Smell. c) Taste. d) Presence or absence of bacteria. e) Temperature. Question 49 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) In which of the following cases would you expect to find the narrowest base on an ecological pyramid of numbers? a) Grass>deer>mountain lions b) Algae>tadpoles>snakes. c) Elephants> ticks>bacteria. d) Whales>sharks>squid. e) Shrubs>moose>wolves.

Question 50 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) In which section of a scientific paper would the data be shown? a) Introduction. b) Abstract. c) Discussion. d) Results. e) Methods.

Question 51 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) In Lab 1 (Dependent and Independent Variables), which of the following is considered the dependent variable? a. The amount of corn produced in a field b. The level of ECB infestation c. The amount of nutrients obtained by each corn plant d. The type of corn planted

Question 52 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of the following is a bacterium that produces crystalline proteins which act as stomach poisons to select insects? a. European corn borer b. Bacillus thuringiensis c. Super Harvest seed variety d. BT123

Question 53 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which type of tissue would have a higher mitotic index? a. cancerous ovarian tissue b. normal ovarian tissue c. both a and b d. neither a or b, the mitotic index cannot be calculated for ovarian tissue.

Question 54 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) The mitotic index is defined as: a. the ratio between the number of cells at

Question 55 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) The fan represents wind in the environment. How does it increase waterloss by all the plants in the study? a. Decrease in evaporation b. Increase in evaporation c. The Stomata are forced closed. d. Increased humidity

Question 56 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) In your study which plant was most likely taken from a tropical rainforest? a. The zebra plant b. The coleus c. The rubber plant d. The arrowhead

Question 57 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Which of the following illustrates the correct ordering of trophic levels? a. Decomposers -> carnivores -> autotrophs -> herbivores b. Herbivores -> autotrophs -> carnivores -> decomposers c. Autotrophs -> herbivores -> carnivores -> decomposers d. Primary producers -> Primary Consumers -> Secondary Consumers

Question 58 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) The ultimate source of energy for most ecosystems is: a. Carbon b. Oxygen c. Sunlight d. Water

Question 59 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Chemosynthesis is the process by which the organisms manufacture food using hydrogen sulfide, heavy metals and hot water (600 deg C). a. True b. False

Question 60 (Multiple Choice Worth 1.6666 points) Photosynthesis is a biochemical reaction which converts oxygen and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water. a. true b. false Bottom of Form 1

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