1)A child who questions the reality of the Easter Bunny is likely in the
a) concrete operational stage.
b) preoperational stage.
c) sensorimotor stage.
d) post-operational stage.
2) A person who has poor vision, basic sensitivity to taste, an acute sense of pain, and good hearing is MOST likely to be in which developmental stage?
c) middle age
d) late adulthood
3) How long after conception does it take until the major organ systems have become differentiated?
A: eight weeks
B: six weeks
C: two weeks
D: fourteen weeks
4) Regina and Raj work as researchers for the same company. They are currently working on similar projects, but they have chosen different approaches. Regina is conducting cross-sectional research, whereas Raj is conducting longitudinal research. Which of the following is MOST likely to be true about their research?
a) Regina’s findings are more likely to be influenced by cohort effects than Raj’s.
b)Regina’s experiment is likely to be more expensive than Raj’s.
c)Raj’s participant sample will most likely be larger than Regina’s.
d)Raj’s research will be completed faster than Regina’s.
5) Which of the following individuals is MOST likely at Erikson’s identity versus role confusion stage of psychosocial development?
a)Ben changes his “look” on a weekly basis. Sometimes he dresses in preppy clothes, sometimes in skater clothes, sometimes in athletic gear. He tries out different activities and hangs out with different friends almost as often as he changes his appearance.
b)Suzanne’s children have graduated from college and are starting families of their own. She wants to be involved with them, their spouses, and children, but she has a hard time nurturing them because she would rather concentrate on her own problems.
c)James is learning to “do unto others” and act in ways that benefit his friends and his parents as well as himself. He has started picking up after himself without being asked and often offers to help his parents clean up the house.
d) Diana’s friends often try to set her up with people they know, and she will sometimes go out on dates arranged by her friends. A few times, these set ups have led to relationships that last several months, but Diana struggles to form intimate bonds and often ends the relationships.
6)A pregnant woman who experiences frequent headaches should
a)Discuss pain management for the headaches with her doctor.
b)Take aspirin to alleviate the headaches.
c)Drink one glass of wine to alleviate the headaches.
d)Realize that headaches are a common symptom of pregnancy and ignore the pain.
7)Sal believes that by 12-year-old, children have developed the capacity for logical thought. Riley believes that logical thought develops gradually, and is NOT necessarily well established by age 12. Which statement best summarizes Sal and Riley’s positions?
a)Sal believes in a qualitative approach to development and Riley believes in a quantitative approach to development.
b)Sal believes in a quantitative approach to development, while Riley believes in a qualitative approach to development.
c)Sal believes that nature is dominant in development, while Riley believes nurture is dominant.
d)Sal believes that nurture is dominant in development, while Riley believes nature is dominant.
8) The proximodistal pattern of growth would explain which of the following instances BEST?
a)Dante was able to sit before he could stand.
b)Famir was able to wave her arms at an object before she could use her hands to grasp objects.
c)Abdul was able to walk before he could pick up a raisin with a pincer grasp.
d)Emily was able to roll over before she could reach for objects.
9)Lauren is pregnant with her first child. At her recent ultrasound, she could just start to see the formation of arms and legs, and the baby’s head was very large compared to the rest of the body. The baby is in the ________ period of development.
10)Given that collectivistic cultures focus on group identity, the identity versus role confusion stage of Erikson’s model might
a)reflect too great an emphasis on group identity.
b)too broadly describe cultural dilemmas.
c)never be resolved for individuals in collectivistic cultures.
d)reflect a Western bias in the understanding psychosocial crises.
11)Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a)Our brains shrink during adulthood due to significant loss of neurons.
b)Broad intellectual abilities decline in adulthood.
c)Neurons form in particular brain areas throughout life.
d)We learn material in our 50s as quickly and easily as we did in our 20s and 30s.
12) According to Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, during which stage should you expect your child would NOT steal after knowing it was a crime?
13) According to Vygotsky’s theory on cognitive development as children enter the zone of proximal development they are increasingly able to carry out which type of task?
a)A task that the child is able to complete and practice by himself.
b)A task that the child can complete, but only with guidance.
c)A task that can be attempted, but not completed, even with guidance.
d)The type of task does not matter to development as much as the social context in which the task is being practiced.
14) Kate and Tom are discussing how to determine if a woman’s perception of age changes over time. Kate says that the best way to study this would be to survey a group of women in their 20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s. Tom says that the best approach would involve asking the same woman over a period of 30 years. What statement summarizes their different approaches?
a)Kate prefers a cross-sectional design, while Tom prefers a longitudinal design.
b)Kate prefers a longitudinal design, while Tom prefers a cross-sectional design.
c)Kate believes in the cohort effect, but Tom does not.
d)Tom believes in nurture over nature, but Kate believes in nature over nurture.
15) Karie and Linda are discussing their jobs at a daycare centre. Karie says that 13-month-old Aiden has almost overnight begun to reason differently than before. Linda says that 12-month-old Silas has just steadily been getting better. According to the concepts in the chapter, what are Karie and Linda discussing?
a)Karie and Linda are both talking about maturation.
b)Karie is talking about discontinuous development, while Linda is talking about continuous development.
c)Karie is discussing continuity theory, while Linda is discussing stage theory.
d)Karie and Linda are both talking about continuity theory.
16)Li Mei spent the first five years of her life in a Chinese orphanage where she was socially isolated and shown little affection. Now at age fifteen, Li Mei has difficulty communicating and has low intelligence scores. According to the nature position, what may explain Li Mei’s difficulties?
a)She was deprived of human contact and socialization during a critical period.
b)She had no opportunity to imprint during the maturation stage.
c)She is a slow-to-warm child and is predisposed to aggressive behaviour.
d)She bonded with objects, not people while in the orphanage.
17)Amanda, 17, felt that although it was unsafe for others to text while driving, it was perfectly safe for her to do so as she felt that she was an unusually attentive driver. Elkind would say Amanda’s faulty thinking is due to
a)postconventional moral reasoning.
b)the personal fable.
c)the imaginary audience.
18) Which of the following children is MOST likely to seek intimate, affectionate relationships during adulthood?
a)Pete’s mom likes to hug and cuddle Pete. When she leaves the room, Pete shows moderate signs of distress that disappear as soon as mom comes back.
b) Gwen’s mom expects Gwen to entertain herself. When she leaves the room, Gwen gets very upset and does not stop fussing when mom returns.
c)Ian’s mom wants him to be independent and scolds Ian when he clings to her. When she leaves the room, Ian is unconcerned and is equally unconcerned when mom returns.
d)Lola’s mom sometimes shows her affection and ignores her at other times. When she leaves the room, Lola seems confused and is apprehensive when mom returns.
19) Researchers have done experiments on owls’ auditory development. Which type of results would BEST support a maturational critical period?
a)The longer that the researchers plug the ears of baby owls, the less able the owls are to accurately locate prey based on sound as adults. This effect is linear and gradual.
b)The researchers can plug the ears of owls for any length of time at any point during its life, and the owl will still fully develop the ability to detect prey based on sound.
c)The researchers can plug the ears of the baby owls for a little while with no consequence, but after a certain point, plugging an owl’s ears will seriously interfere with the owl’s ability to learn how to use sound to locate prey.
d)Plugging a baby owl’s ears for any length of time does irreparable damage to the owl’s ability to hear and hunt prey.
20)How are the imaginary audience and the personal fable similar?
a)Both concepts emerge during the formal operational stage and are associated with adolescent egocentrism.
b)Both concepts emerge during the concrete operational stage and are associated with adolescent egocentrism.
c)Both concepts emerge during the formal operational stage and are associated with irreversibility.
d)Both concepts emerge during the concrete operational stage and are associated with irreversibility.
21)A researcher is interested in studying why people of different ages have a fear of learning new technology. Which research design would be BEST to use for this study?
22)You are a nurse in a maternity ward. One of your patients is a first-time mother who is distraught that her newborn son will NOT focus on her face. What is the BEST explanation to give the mother?
a)A newborn’s eyes are have poor visual acuity, so they cannot focus like adults can. This will improve within the next few months, and the infant will soon be looking at the mother frequently.
b)The newborn was likely exposed to a teratogen such as an infectious disease during the critical period of development, which may have resulted in blindness.
c)All of a newborn’s senses are dulled after birth, including vision, hearing, and touch. Within the first two years, the infant’s senses will develop and reach adult levels, and the child will be able to see the mother clearly.
d)Newborns cannot distinguish between their mothers and other adults, so the infant’s unwillingness to look at her face is simply because he does not have a connection to the mother yet.
23) What makes scientists believe that newborns can distinguish tastes and smells?
a)In studies, newborns demonstrate increased heart rates and salivation when exposed to the smell of their mother’s milk.
b)In studies, breast-fed newborns prefer the flavour and odour of their own mother’s milk over the milk of another mother.
c)Newborns instinctively put all objects into their mouths to taste them, which indicates that they rely heavily on their sense of taste and smell to navigate the world.
d)A newborn’s heart rate increases when he or she is exposed to smells of common food items versus other odours of non-edible items.