Complete 2 page APA formatted essay: Classical and Operant Conditioning.
It means that two stimuli that are linked together produce a new learned response in an animal or human. Each of the three stages of the stimuli and responses were given the scientific terms, such as before conditioning, during conditioning and after conditioning. Pavlov’s famous experiment with the dog demonstrated how classical conditioning involved pairing of the previously neutral stimulus. During the experiment he used a bell as the unconditioned stimulus, which was further associated with the food taste. The researcher observed the producing of salivation when food was placed in the dogs mouth. Then he rang the bell and gave the dog food. In several repetitions, the dog salivated to the bell only, showing the conditioned response. To prove the theory, there was conducted an experiment with the cat. An owner was standing in the kitchen and called a cat by knocking the ceramic plate or opening the refrigerator. When the cat was little, it did not come to the kitchen hearing these sounds. In a certain time, the cat associated every opening of the fridge and knocking sounds with the time to have meals.
The other conditioning term, operant, refers to how a body operates on the environment or how human or animals respond to what is presented to them in that environment. Operant conditioning can be thought as a result of learning from the natural consequences of one’s actions. People learn operant conditions every day in their lives. If something one does leads to a positive result, it is more likely to one to do the same thing again. Operant conditioning draws its attention on using reinforcement or punishment to enhance or reduce a behavior. An association then is formed between the certain behavior and its consequences. The experiment with the cat who wants milk. The cat knows that every time the owner is on the kitchen and the cat comes for “sweet-talk” walking around the owner’s legs, it will obviously obtain
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