1) Which of the following is a sensation and not a perception?
A) seeing the colors in a rainbow
B) a nerve impulse induced by sugar stimulating sweet receptors on the tongue
C) the smell of natural gas escaping from an open burner on a gas stove
D) the unique taste of french fries with cheese E) the sound of a fire-truck siren as it passes by your car
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension2) Why are we able to differentiate tastes and smells?
A) The action potentials initiated by taste receptors are transmitted to a separate region of the brain than those initiated by receptors for smell.
B) The sensory region of the cerebral cortex distinguishes something we taste from something we smell by the difference in the action potential.
C) The brain distinguishes between taste, arising from interoreceptors, from smell arising from exteroreceptors. D) Because we are able to see what we are tasting, the brain uses this information to distinguish taste from smell. E) Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation3) If a stimulus is to be perceived by the nervous system, which part of the sensory pathway must occur first? A) integration B) transmission C) transduction
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension What is the correct sequence of events that would lead to a person hearing a sound?1. transmission2. transduction3. integration4. amplification
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 1, 4, 2, 3
C) 2, 4, 1, 3
D) 3, 1, 2, 4
E) 3, 1, 4, 2
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis5) Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin feels itchy. However, the itching stops after a few minutes and you are unaware that you are wearing a shirt. Why?
A) Sensory adaptation has occurred.
B) Accommodation has increased.
C) Transduction has increased.
D) Motor unit recruitment has decreased.
E) Receptor amplification has decreased.
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis6) Which of the following is a good example of sensory adaptation?
A) olfactory receptors ceasing to produce receptor potentials when triggered by the smell of the second batch of cookies you are baking
B) hair cells in the organ of Corti not responding to high-pitched sounds after you have worked on the same construction job for 30 years
C) cones in the human eye failing to respond to light in the infrared range
D) hair cells in the utricle and saccule responding to a change in orientation when you bend your neck forward after you have been reading a book
E) rods in the human eye responding to mechanical stimulation from a blow to the back of the head so that a flash of light is perceived
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis7) Why does your arm feel cold when you reach inside the refrigerator to get a container of milk?
A) Circulating levels of prostaglandins increase.
B) The temperature of the blood circulating to the arm decreases.
C) Thermoreceptors send signals to the cerebral cortex where the change from room temperature to refrigerator temperature is transduced.
D) Thermoreceptors in the skin undergo accommodation, which increases their sensitivity.
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis 8) Which of the following receptors is incorrectly paired with the type of energy it transduces?
B) electromagnetic receptorsmagnetism
C) chemoreceptorssolute concentrations
E) pain receptorselectricity
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension9) What do hearing, touch, and full stomachs have in common?
A) The transducers are all proprioceptors.
B) The sensory information from all three is sent to the thalamus.
C) The sensory receptors are all hair cells.
D) Electrical energy is transduced to form an action potential.
E) Only A and B are correct.
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension10) Why is it less useful to think of behavior as a linear series of sensing, analyzing, and acting than as a continuous cyclical process?
A) When an organism senses something, it reacts virtually simultaneously and too quickly to be sequential.
B) When an organism is acting it may also be sensing and analyzing another stimulus.
C) An organism only acts cyclically and never as a result of just one stimulus.
D) An organism does not always analyze a stimulus before acting on it.
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation11) Which of the following is controlled by the magnitude of a receptor potential?
A) the rate of production of an action potential
B) the rate of reaction of the brain
C) the rate of response to a sensory neuron
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 12) A given photon of light may trigger an action potential with thousands of times more energy. How is this signal strength magnified?
A) by the receptor
B) by a G protein
C) by an enzymatic reaction
D) by sensory adaptation
E) by triggering several receptors at once
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis13) What is a muscle spindle?
A) an actin-myosin complex
B) a troponin-tropomyosin complex
C) axons wound around muscle fibers
D) groups of dendrite-encircled muscle fibers
E) muscle cells that make up muscle groups
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension14) “Hot” peppers taste this way because of capsaicin. It is said to taste hot because
A) it excites the same brain region as other spicy foods.
B) it causes pain even in small doses.
C) it elicits anti-prostaglandins.
D) it is a G-protein mediated effect.
E) it activates the same receptors as something heated.
Topic: Concept 50.1 Skill: Application/Analysis Figure 50.115) What is the structure diagrammed in Figure 50.1?
A) a neuromast
B) a statocyst
C) a taste bud
D) an ommatidium
E) an olfactory bulb
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension16) What impact would a nonfunctioning statocyst have on an earthworm? The earthworm would not be able to
B) sense light.
D) orient with respect to gravity.
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension17) The pathway leading to the perception of sound by mammals begins with the
A) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
B) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tympanic membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
C) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tectorial membrane, coming in contact with the basilar membrane.
D) hair cells of the organ of Corti coming in contact with the tectorial membrane as a result of fluid waves in the cochlea causing vibrations in the round window.
E) hair cells on the tympanic membrane that stimulate the tectorial membrane neurons leading to the auditory section of the brain.
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 18) The perceived pitch of a sound depends on
A) vibrations of the tympanic membrane being transmitted through the incus
B) vibrations of the oval window creating wave formation in the fluid of the vestibular canal.
C) the region of the basilar membrane where the signal originated.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/ComprehensionThe following questions refer to the diagram of the ear in Figure 50.2.Figure 50.219) Which structure(s) is (are) involved in equalizing the pressure between the ear and the atmosphere?
A) 1 and 8
B) 5 and 7
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension20) Which structure(s) is (are) involved in equilibrium?
A) 2, 3, and 4
B) 2, 5, and 7
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 21) Which number(s) represent(s) the structure or structures involved in transmitting vibrations to the oval window?
A) 1, 2, 3, and 4
B) 2, 3, and 4
C) 3 and 4
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension22) Which number represents the location of the organ of Corti?
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension23) Hair cells are found in structures represented by numbers
A) 1 and 2.
B) 3 and 4.
C) 5 and 7.
D) 6 and 8.
E) 9 and 10.
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension24) Which of the following is an attachment site between sensory hairs that open ion channels when the hairs bend?
A) tip links
D) round window
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension25) Which of the following contains mechanoreceptors that react to low frequency waves in much the same manner as our inner ear?
A) our sense of taste
B) pain receptors
C) receptors for light touch
D) lateral line systems
Topic: Concept 50.2 Skill: Application/Analysis 26) What are sensillae?
A) smell receptors in animals with hydrostatic skeletons
B) mechanoreceptors that help birds remain oriented during flight
C) a specific type of hair cell in the human ear
D) insect taste receptors found on feet and mouthparts
Topic: Concept 50.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension27) What portion of the brain has neurons that receive action potentials from chemoreceptor cells in the nose?
A) gustatory complex
B) anterior hypothalamus
C) olfactory bulb
D) occipital lobe
E) posterior pituitary
Topic: Concept 50.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension28) Which of the following is perceived as umami?
A) the smooth and lush taste of cheesecake
B) a rich chocolate taste
C) a savory complex cheese
D) spoiled milk
Topic: Concept 50.3 Skill: Application/Analysis29) What is the relationship between taste cells and number of expressed receptor types?
A) ~10 : 1
B) ~100 : 1
C) ~1000 : 1
D) 1 : 1
Topic: Concept 50.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension30) Which of the major senses responds by means of a very large gene family?
Topic: Concept 50.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 31) It is very difficult to sneak up to a grasshopper and catch it. Why?
A) They have excellent hearing for detecting predators.
B) They have compound eyes with multiple ommatidia.
C) They have eyes with multiple fovea.
D) They have a camera-like eye with multiple fovea.
E) They have binocular vision.
Topic: Concept 50.4 Skill: Application/Analysis32) Which of the following is a correct statement about the cells of the human retina?
A) Cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot.
B) Cone cells are more sensitive to light than rod cells are.
C) Cone cells, but not rod cells, have a visual pigment.
D) Rod cells are most highly concentrated in the center of the retina.
E) Rod cells require higher illumination for stimulation than do cone cells.
Topic: Concept 50.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension33) The axons of rods and cones synapse with
A) ganglion cells.
B) horizontal cells.
C) amacrine cells.
D) bipolar cells.
E) lateral cells.
Topic: Concept 50.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension34) Which of the following structures is the last one that sensory information would encounter during visual processing?
A) ganglion cells
B) bipolar cells
C) primary visual cortex
D) optic chiasma
E) lateral geniculate nuclei
Topic: Concept 50.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension35) If a baseball player is hit in the back of the head, which part of his brain would be the most likely injured?
A) the primary visual cortex
B) the thalamus
C) the optic chiasma
D) the lateral geniculate nuclei
E) the tectorial membrane
Topic: Concept 50.4 Skill: Application/Analysis 36) What structural feature(s) contribute(s) most to the diverse adaptations for animal movement?
A) sensory system
B) skeletal system
C) muscular system
D) nervous system
Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension37) Skeletal fibers may be classified as either oxidative or glycolytic. Which of the following muscles would be called glycolytic?
A) those with a high concentration of myoglobin
B) those with a large number of mitochondria
C) the dark muscle meat of poultry
D) those with the smallest diameters
Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension38) Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a sex-linked condition in humans that results from abnormal dystrophin protein. The condition results in progressive weakening and atrophy of muscles, usually beginning with the legs. This is most consistent with which of the following?
A) an abnormality of actin protein distribution
B) a structural abnormality of the sarcomere
C) a disturbance of smooth muscle
D) an abnormality of calcium channels
Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation Use Figure 50.3 to answer the following questions.Figure 50.339) The structure pictured in Figure 50.3 can be found in which types of muscles? A) skeletal B) cardiac C) smooth D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension40) Which section consists only of myosin filaments? Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension41) Which section consists of both actin and myosin filaments? Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension42) When an organism dies, its muscles remain in a contracted state termed “rigor mortis” for a brief period of time. Which of the following most directly contributes to this phenomenon? There is no A) ATP to move cross-bridges. B) ATP to break bonds between the thick and thin filaments. C) calcium to bind to troponin. D) oxygen supplied to muscle. E) Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: 43) Which of the following does not form part of the thin filaments of a muscle cell? A) actin B) troponin C) tropomyosin D) myosin E) calcium-binding site Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension44) What is the role of calcium in muscle contractions? A) break the cross-bridges as a cofactor in the hydrolysis of ATP B) bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites C) transmit the action potential across the neuromuscular junction D) spread the action potential through the T tubules E) reestablish the polarization of the plasma membrane following an action potential Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension45) Muscle cells are stimulated by neurotransmitters released from the synaptic terminal of A) T tubules. B) motor neuron axons. C) sensory neuron axons. D) motor neuron dendrites. E) Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension46) Which function associated with muscle would be most directly affected by low levels of calcium? A) ATP hydrolysis B) the initiation of an action potential C) the muscle fiber resting membrane potential D) muscle contraction E) muscle fatigue Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 47) Which of the following is the correct sequence that occurs during the excitation and contraction of a muscle cell?1. Tropomyosin shifts and unblocks the cross-bridge binding sites.2. Calcium is released and binds to the troponin complex.3. Transverse tubules depolarize the sarcoplasmic reticulum.4. The thin filaments are ratcheted across the thick filaments by the heads of the myosin molecules using energy from ATP.5. An action potential in a motor neuron causes the axon to release acetylcholine, which depolarizes the muscle cell membrane. A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 B) 2, 1, 3, 5, 4 C) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5 D) 5, 3, 1, 2, 4 E) 5, 3, 2, 1, 4 Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Application/Analysis48) Which of the following could you find in the lumen of a transverse tubule? A) extracellular fluid B) cytoplasm C) actin D) myosin E) sarcomeres Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension49) A sustained muscle contraction due to a lack of relaxation between successive stimuli is called A) tonus. B) tetanus. C) an all-or-none response. D) fatigue. E) a spasm. Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension50) Which of the following are shared by skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle? A) A bands and I bands B) transverse tubules C) gap junctions D) motor units E) thick and thin filaments Topic: Concept 50.5 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 51) What are animals with hydrostatic skeletons able to do that animals with exoskeletons or internal skeletons cannot do? A) elongate B) crawl C) live in aquatic environments D) grow without replacing their skeleton E) A, B, and D Topic: Concept 50.6 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension52) Which of the following could be associated with peristalsis? A) hydrostatic skeletons and smooth muscle B) hydrostatic skeletons and movement in earthworms C) smooth muscle and contractions along the human digestive tract causing movement of the contents within D) A and C only E) Topic: Concept 50.6 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension53) Which of the following would be expected to expend the greatest amount of energy for locomotion per unit mass? A) a tadpole B) a bony fish C) a terrestrial reptile D) a robin E) a whale Topic: Concept 50.6 Skill: Application/Analysis54) Which of the following sensory receptors is incorrectly paired with its category? A) hair cellmechanoreceptor B) muscle spindlemechanoreceptor C) taste receptorchemoreceptor D) rodelectromagnetic receptor E) olfactory receptorelectromagnetic receptor 55) Some sharks close their eyes just before they bite. Although they cannot see their prey, their bites are on target. Researchers have noted that sharks often misdirect their bites at metal objects, and that sharks can find batteries buried under the sand of an aquarium. This evidence suggests that sharks keep track of their prey during the split second before they bite in the same way that a A) rattlesnake finds a mouse in its burrow. B) male silkworm moth locates a mate. C) bat finds moths in the dark. D) platypus locates its prey in a muddy river. E) flatworm avoids light places. 56) The transduction of sound waves into action potentials takes place A) within the tectorial membrane as it is stimulated by the hair cells. B) when hair cells are bent against the tectorial membrane, causing them to depolarize and release neurotransmitter that stimulates sensory neurons. C) as the basilar membrane becomes more permeable to sodium ions and depolarizes, initiating an action potential in a sensory neuron. D) as the basilar membrane vibrates at different frequencies in response to the varying volume of sounds. E) within the middle ear as the vibrations are amplified by the malleus, incus, and stapes. 57) Which of the following is an incorrect statement about the vertebrate eye? A) The vitreous humor regulates the amount of light entering the pupil. B) The transparent cornea is an extension of the sclera. C) The fovea is the center of the visual field and contains only cones. D) The ciliary muscle functions in accommodation. E) The retina lies just inside the choroid and contains the photoreceptor cells. 58) When light strikes the rhodopsin in a rod, retinal isomerizes, initiating a signal transduction pathway that A) depolarizes the neighboring bipolar cells and initiates an action potential in a ganglion cell. B) depolarizes the rod, causing it to release the neurotransmitter glutamate, which excites bipolar cells. C) hyperpolarizes the rod, reducing its release of glutamate, which excites some bipolar cells and inhibits others. D) hyperpolarizes the rod, increasing its release of glutamate, which excites amacrine cells but inhibits horizontal cells. E) converts cGMP to GMP, opening sodium channels and hyperpolarizing the membrane, causing the rhodopsin to become bleached. 59) During the contraction of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber, calcium ions A) break cross-bridges by acting as a cofactor in the hydrolysis of ATP. B) bind with troponin, changing its shape so that the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed. C) transmit action potentials from the motor neuron to the muscle fiber. D) spread action potentials through the T tubules. E) reestablish the polarization of the plasma membrane following an action potential.