Concept 50.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Question 1

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • When Arlo first started drinking alcohol, all he needed to get a buzz was two beers. Now it takes two six-packs. The reduction in Arlo’s ability to experience the therapeutic effect is called
  • Answers:a. drug tolerance
  • b. drug compulsion
  • c. physical withdrawal
  • d. psychological addiction

Question 2

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • After a gunshot wound to the head, Ducky is unable to form new memories but can remember old ones. You would expect that the wound damaged the
  • Answers:a. cerebrum
  • b. cerebellum
  • c. hippocampus
  • d. thalamus

Question 3

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • If you wear a particular shirt and get lots of compliments, you are likely to wear this shirt more often. This is an example of 
  • Answers:a. classical conditioning
  • b. latent learning
  • c. operant conditioning
  • d. observational learning

Question 4

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • The part of the neuron that receives messages from an adjacent neuron is the
  • Answers:a. dendrite
  • b. terminal
  • c. axon
  • d. soma

Question 5

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • A circadian rhythm is
  • Answers:a. a cycle of lunar phases.
  • b. a cycle connected to the 24-hour period of earth’s rotation (daylight, nighttime).
  • c. a method of birth control.
  • d. a cycle of wakefulness based on meteorological conditions.

Question 6

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Which of the following person(s) is/are attempting to alter his/her/their state(s) of consciousness?
  • Answers:a. All of these.
  • b. A college student spends the day walking barefoot through the woods in a quiet state of mindful meditation.
  • c. A Navajo elder gives his congregation peyote tea, a sacrament in the Native American Church.
  • d. An artist drinks a few cups of coffee to clear her head.

Question 7

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • You are watching a horror movie. The music changes to a familiar tune you know is prelude to danger. Your muscles tense, your heart races, your breathing becomes shallow, and your mouth is dry. Which nervous system is being activated?
  • Answers:a. parasympathetic
  • b. somatic
  • c. central
  • d. sympathetic

Question 8

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • If you were asked to describe the personality of your best friend, and you said that she was optimistic, reserved, and friendly, you would be using the ________ approach.
  • Answers:a. psychodynamic
  • b. humanistic
  • c. analytical
  • d. trait

Question 9

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • A psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person’s personality, behavior, or personal adjustment defines
  • Answers:a. psychosurgery
  • b. pharmacotherapy
  • c. psychotherapy
  • d. somatotherapy

Question 10

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • Erik Erikson’s theory of development differed from Freud’s in that
  • Answers:a. Erikson considered stages of adult development.
  • b. Erikson did not think young children had specific needs.
  • c. Erikson did not believe in an adolescent identity crisis.
  • d. Erikson created a stage theory of development.

Question 11

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Which of the following persons is/are attempting to alter his or her state of consciousness?
  • Answers:a. A college student spends a day walking through the wilderness in a quiet state of mindfulness meditation.
  • b. An artist spends two hours in a flotation chamber to clear her head.
  • c. All of these.
  • d. A Navajo elder gives his congregation peyote tea, a sacrament in the Native American Church.

Question 12

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • According to Ainsworth, babies who demonstrate close proximity to their mother and separation anxiety when apart are showing indication of 
  • Answers:a. avoidant attachment
  • b. socialization
  • c. secure attachment
  • d. association

Question 13

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • Thus, the results of the Milgram study are all that more disturbing because
  • Answers:a. the experimenter had no real power to force the subjects to comply.
  • b. Milgram violated the ethical principles of his time.
  • c. the majority of participants who went all the way to 450 volts did so quite happily.
  • d. the subjects volunteered to be the “teacher” rather than the “learner.”

Question 14

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • In the “love on the swaying bridge” experiment, the findings that the men interviewed on the high swaying suspension bridge called the attractive interviewer more than the men interviewed on the solid wooden bridge suggest that the
  • Answers:a. men on the swaying bridge interpreted their heightened arousal as attraction for the attractive interviewer.
  • b. attractive interviewer smiled more at the men on the swaying bridge than the solid bridge.
  • c. men on the swaying bridge were younger than the men on the solid wooden bridge.
  • d. men on the swaying bridge were more athletic than the men on the solid wooden bridge.

Question 15

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Nat likes to “lay down the law” and takes no arguments from his children. According to Diana Baumrind’s research on parenting styles, Nat is exhibiting ___________ parenting style. 
  • Answers:a. neglect
  • b. authoritative
  • c. authoritarian
  • d. overly permissive

Question 16

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • If you conclude that the participants in a study are truly a representative sample, then you can __________ the findings from the research sample to the larger population.
  • Answers:a. procrastinate
  • b. generalize
  • c. speculate
  • d. replicate

Question 17

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Your friend comes to you with a personal problem. The first thing you should do to counsel her is to
  • Answers:a. actively listen to try to clarify the problem.
  • b. tell her what you would do in her situation.
  • c. ask a lot of questions to get her talking.
  • d. give her advice on what she should do.

Question 18

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • ________ is the mental process of assigning causes to events, such as in emotion, one assigns bodily arousal to a particular source.
  • Answers:a. Attribution
  • b. Negation
  • c. Homeostasis
  • d. Feedback

Question 19

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • The dimensions of the five-factor model of personality can be used to predict how people will act in various circumstances. For example, people who score high on the ________ dimension tend to perform well at work, do well in school, rarely have automobile accidents, and even live longer.
  • Answers:a. conscientiousness
  • b. openness to experience
  • c. agreeableness
  • d. extroversion

Question 20

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • David has just found out that he will have three tests on the same day. His heart is racing, and he is experiencing a shortness of breath and feels sick to his stomach. David is exhibiting signs of which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
  • Answers:a. activation
  • b. defensive
  • c. resistance
  • d. alarm

Question 21

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • According to positive psychology, negative emotions tend to ________, while positive emotions tend to ________.
  • Answers:a. seek new experiences; make us content with the status quo.
  • b. keep us out of danger; create dangerous situations.
  • c. be of our own making; a side effect of happy circumstances.
  • d. narrow our focus; broaden our focus.

Question 22

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Learned helplessness tends to occur when events appear to be
  • Answers:a. uncontrollable
  • b. in conflict
  • c. frustrating
  • d. problem-focused

Question 23

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • When Arlo started drinking alcohol, all he needed to get a buzz was two beers. Now it takes two six-packs. The reduction in Arlo’s ability to experience the therapeutic effect is called
  • Answers:a. psychological dependance
  • b. physical dependance
  • c. withdrawal
  • d. tolerance

Question 24

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • About ten minutes after Courtney starts her 30-minute walk on the treadmill, she begins to perspire, which helps her cool off. Her body’s tendency to maintain normal temperature is a function of
  • Answers:a. instinct
  • b. drive
  • c. social learning
  • d. homeostasis

Question 25

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • If your car breaks down on the highway, according to the bystander effect, you are most likely to receive help if
  • Answers:a. there are shifting patterns of heavy and light traffic on the highway.
  • b. you are a woman.
  • c. there are many cars on the highway.
  • d. there are only one or two cars on the highway.

Question 26

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • According to developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, playing peek-a-boo helps children develop
  • Answers:a. assimilation
  • b. conservation
  • c. egocentrism
  • d. object permanence

Question 27

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Subjects in Stanley Milgram’s experiment who gave large shocks rationalized that they were not personally responsible for their actions. This raises questions about our willingness to commit inhumane acts as a result of
  • Answers:a. obedience to legitimate authority.
  • b. self-assertion.
  • c. conformity to group pressure.
  • d. resistant compliance.

Question 28

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • You are walking into a store when a man bumps into you. You think “what a jerk,” until you realize that he actually bumped into you while catching a sidewalk display that was about to fall on your head. You sheepishly thank him and realize that by initially thinking he was a jerk you were demonstrating
  • Answers:a. cognitive dissonance.
  • b. discrimination.
  • c. the funamental attribution error.
  • d. social biasing.

Question 29

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Joyce believes herself to be hardworking, conscientious, and a team player, but when she received her job evaluations from her employer and peers she was shocked to learn that she was not viewed as hardworking, or even as a team player. According to Carl Rogers, Joyce is experiencing
  • Answers:a. neurotic anxiety.
  • b. moral anxiety.
  • c. organismic valuing.
  • d. incongruence.

Question 30

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • You volunteer to participate in a research experiment. You participate in a variety of test procedures and interviews. Later, however, you learn that another group of participants had an experimental treatment that you and members of your group did not have. This is because you
  • Answers:a. failed earlier tests
  • b. were part of the treatment group
  • c. were disqualified
  • d. were part of the control group

Question 31

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • You are being introduced to someone. The best way to remember this person’s name is to
  • Answers:a. try to use the person’s name in the next sentence or two 
  • b. repeat the name to yourself
  • c. pay careful attention to the name
  • d. all of the above

Question 32

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Madison has a fear of riding across bridges. In order to get her over her phobia, she is asked to imagine a series of increasingly distressing images involving her riding in a car across increasingly longer bridges. The most distressing being imagining herself driving across the Golden Gate Bridge to visit her aunt. This procedure is referred to as
  • Answers:a. desensitization
  • b. in-vivo exposure
  • c. virtual reality exposure
  • d. reciprocal disinhibition exposure

Question 33

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Dr. Von Nostrom wants to study television-viewing habits of elementary school children. He selects 50 children from local schools to participate in his research. This group of students would be considered the
  • Answers:a. none of these
  • b. sample
  • c. population
  • d. representative group

Question 34

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • Rosa kept seeing signs on the highway advertising McDonald’s restaurant. She started to salivate the the possibility of having a Big Mac burger. The roadsigns served as 
  • Answers:a. conditioned responses
  • b. unconditioned responses
  • c. conditioned stimuli
  • d. unconditioned stimuli

Question 35

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • Badura’s Bobo dolls experiment demonstrated how children might imitate the aggressive behaviors of others, especially if that behavior is rewarded. This study illustrated what type of learning?
  • Answers:a. paradoxical intention
  • b. negative reinforcement
  • c. modeling
  • d. positive reinforcement

Question 36

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Mr. Cherry is seeking a therapist to help him cope with his son’s drug abuse. He wants to see someone who will give him clear, direct advice about his problems and will help him accomplish goals in a few sessions. Mr. Cherry would probably be most satisfied with a therapist who uses the ________ and ________ approaches.
  • Answers:a. insight; time-limited
  • b. action; supportive
  • c. directive; time-limited
  • d. individual; supportive

Question 37

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Regarding the use of drugs to treat emotional disturbances, which of the following statements is FALSE?
  • Answers:a. The use of drugs has radically changed the atmosphere in psychiatric wards.
  • b. For serious mental disorders, a combination of medication and psychotherapy almost always works better than drugs alone.
  • c. Drugs have made it possible for many people to return to the community and be treated on an outpatient basis.
  • d. Hospital stays have become longer in order to regulate the patient’s medication.

Question 38

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Freud theorized that the core of personality is formed before age six
  • Answers:a. in a series of psychosexual stages.
  • b. through social reinforcement.
  • c. because of conditions of worth.
  • d. through the development of instrumental behaviors.

Question 39

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • A cognitive therapist would view unhealthy anxiety as
  • Answers:a. the results of distorted thinking.
  • b. the effects of learning and conditioning.
  • c. a loss of meaning in one’s life.
  • d. a raging conflict among the id, ego, and superego.

Question 40

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • An act of remembering requires success at which three of the following tasks?
  • Answers:a. encoding, storage, and retrieval
  • b. processing, organizing, and recognition
  • c. declarative memory, primacy effect, and long-term potentiation
  • d. short-term memory, sensory memory, and rehearsal

Question 41

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • All of the following demonstrate how operant conditioning influences a child’s behaviors EXCEPT
  • Answers:a. Peers choose to play with children who are generous and non-aggressive and avoid children who are aggressive.
  • b. Parents express approval to gender appropriate behavior and punish gender-inappropriate behavior.
  • c. Parents reward children for expressing attitudes that are similar to their own and ignore contradictory attitudes.
  • d. Children learn to anticipate that thunder follows lightening.

Question 42

  • 0 out of 2 points
  • The confidence of a witness reporting his memory for the witnessed event is
  • Answers:a. a good indicator of the accuracy of his memory, but should not be trusted because he may be lying.
  • b. a very good indicator of the accuracy of his memory.
  • c. an unreliable indicator of the accuracy of his memory.
  • d. hardly ever taken into account by a jury.

Question 43

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Regarding the causes of mood disorders, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
  • Answers:a. Scientists believe that brain chemicals and transmitter substances, especially serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine are involved in mood disorders.
  • b.Life stresses trigger many mood disorders, especially for people who have personality traits and thinking patterns that make them more vulnerable to depression.
  • c. All of the statements are true.
  • d. Psychoanalytic theory holds that depression is caused by repressed anger.

Question 44

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Peter has an irrational fear of elevators and escalators to the point that he has walked up 20 flights of stairs. His mother has such a fear of dirt and germs that she spends almost every waking moment cleaning, while wearing white cotton gloves. Peter and his mother each have a type of ________ disorder.
  • Answers:a. personality
  • b. psychotic
  • c. anxiety
  • d. dissociative

Question 45

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Would a sample of children from an affluent suburban school district be considered a representative sample of American children?
  • Answers:a. No, because affluent suburban schools might be less racially, ethnically, and economically diverse from the nation as a whole.
  • b. Yes, because public education is available to all children.
  • c. No, because they are nothing like the average child.
  • d. Yes, because they have all the advantages and none of the disadvantages.

Question 46

  • 2 out of 2 points
  • Dr. Watson conducts a study on the effect of drinking or not drinking coffee on campus test scores in group of college students. In this study, the test scores are the
  • Answers:a. dependent variable
  • b. sample
  • c. independent variable
  • d. control group

Question 47

  • Which of the following functions is not negatively impacted by sleep deprivation?
  • Answers:a. driving
  • b. eating
  • c. memory
  • d. learning

Question 48

  • Georgina smokes two packs of cigarettes a day. However, she is aware that smoking is harmful to her health, therefore, she holds two conflicting or dissonant thoughts. If Georgina were to reduce her cognitive dissonance by changing her attitude, she might say to herself,
  • Answers:a. “Smoking is a habit that I have little control over.”
  • b. “I think that I will try to give up smoking.”
  • c. “Smoking is really not that dangerous.”
  • d. “I will only smoke when I feel stresse

Question 49

  • If a neurosurgeon, maybe someone like V.S. Ramachandran, stimulated a specific area of your brain and you felt heat in your left leg, it is likely he stimulated the
  • Answers:a. cerebellum
  • b. hippocampus
  • c. somatosensory cortex
  • d. hypothalamus

Question 50

  • Multiple choice exams generally test
  • Answers:a. sublimated knowledge
  • b. implicit knowledge
  • c. recall
  • d. recognition
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