Risk assessment attempts to measure the probability of an event happening as well as assessing the severity

 1. The current size of the human population on Earth isA. approximately 7.2 billion and decreasing.

B. approximately 7.2 billion and increasing.

C. approximately 7.2 billion and remaining stable.

D. approximately 7.2 billion but there is no way to tell where the population is heading.E. none of the above.

2. For findings of scientific research to be accepted the findings must be

A. repeatable/reproducible

B. involve a large enough sample size to be significant

C. made following the recognized scientific method

D. conducted in an objective fashion

E. all of the above

3. Risk assessment attempts to measure the probability of an event happening as well as assessing the severity of the event should it happen

A. True

B. False

4. Regarding energy, the Earth is a closed systemA. True B. False5. The term sustainability refers to the concept of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their future needs.

A. True

B. False.

6. What implication(s) does the law of conservation of matter have for humans?

A. We cannot produce energy because it is neither created nor destroyed.

B. As matter is recycled it loses its integrity so we need to be careful when we dispose of goods.

C. Natural resources are unlimited.

D. “Disposable” goods are not going “away” when we throw them out.

E. All of these are implications of the law of conservation of matter.

7. The second law of thermodynamics (the entropy law) states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed only changed from one form to another.

A. True

B. False

8. Global climate change is described as a potential positive feedback phenomenon. What does this mean?

A. In the end the outcome of global climate change will be positive

B. Events that occur as a result of global climate change will potentially bring about more global climate change

C. Events that occur as a result of global climate change will bring about other problems like acid rain

D. Events that occur as a result of global climate change will bring about a positive change in the way people view the environment

E. None of the above

9. All members of a single species that live in the same area at the same time and have the potential for reproduction is termed a:

A. species

B. ecosystem.

C. community.

D. population.

E. biome.

10. A biological community consists of a number of populations of different species living and interacting in an area.

A. True

B. False

11.Place the following terms in order from smallest unit to largest

A. ecosystem-community-individual-population

B. ecosystem-population-community-individual

C. individual-community-ecosystem-population

D. individual-population-community-ecosystem

E. community-population-individual-ecosystem

12. Some would argue that wind power is a more environmentally friendly energy source as it is non-polluting and free of many of the impacts associated with using coal to generate electricity.

A. True

B. False

13. Primary consumers are also known as

A. carnivores.

B. scavengers

C. decomposers.

D. herbivores.

E. top carnivores

14. In a food chain, each step of a food chain sees

:A. 10% of the energy passed on to the next step while 90% is lost as heat

B. 90% of the energy passed on to the next step while 10% is lost as heat

C. 50% of the energy passed on to the next step while 50% is lost as heat

D. 100% of the energy passed on to the next step

E. none of the above is correct, we have no way of knowing how much energy is transferred

15. Living vegetation (trees and other plants) and the ocean are known as “carbon sinks” because

A. they are made of carbon.

B. they create carbon.

C. they destroy carbon.

D. they store carbon.

E. due to gravity, carbon is found closer to the ground.

16.The Tragedy of the Commons is a concept that attempts to explain:

A)how human nature leads to environmental degradation

B)how National Parks are doomed to failure due to lack of governmental support

C)how the average/”common” person is uneducated about environmental issues

D)how common wildlife species are often the first to become endangered rather than the exotic species

E)none of the above really expresses what Garret Hardin meant by this phrase

17. Acid Rain has an effect on natural systems (lakes, forests, etc) when the pH of the (rain or snow) is

A. less than 8 on the pH scale

B. greater than 8 on the pH scale

C. less than 7 on the pH scale

D. less than 5.6 on the pH scale

E. greater than 9 on the pH scale

18. Natural selection will ultimately lead to a species that is:

A. more intelligent.

B. physically bigger.

C. adapted to its environment.

D. more aggressive.

E. less vulnerable to its predators.

19. Carbon sequestration refer to what?

A. uncut tropical rainforests holding vast amounts of carbon in their vegetation

B. humans attempting to capture carbon from the burning of fossil fuels and storing that carbon underground

C. the oceans holding carbon and keeping it out of the atmosphere

D. all of the above may be considered carbon sequestration

E. only a and b

20. A bluebird and a tree swallow are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources (feeding on flying insects). These two birds would be members of the same trophic level.

A. True.

B. False.

21. A bluebird and a tree swallow are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources (feeding on flying insects). These two birds would be displaying what interaction?

A. mutualism

B. interspecific competition

C. intraspecific competition

D. neutralism

E. commmensalism

22. Individuals of a species may only reproduce with other individuals of their same species

A. True

B. False

23. In a food web an organism may consume prey from more than one trophic level

A. True

B. False

24.The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) predicts, due to Global climate Change, a future that will include (for some):

A)stronger hurricanes

B)increased droughts and flooding

C)decreased fresh water supplies resulting from disappearing glaciers

D)hotter summers

E)all of the above

25.The earth’s carrying capacity for humans is uncertain due to:

A)the amount of resources available for future generations is debatable

B)a worldwide accepted “standard” of living has not been agreed upon (and will it ever?)

C)future technology may provide useful advances

D)all of the above

E)none of the above, there is no uncertainty regarding the carrying capacity for humans.

26.Renewable resources are those that

A. will not be exhausted.

B. will renew(replace) themselves unless used at a rate that exceeds their replacement rate

C. can be renewed through intensive investments of capital and labor.

D. largely fossil fuels

E. have yet to be utilized by humans

27. What is true about detritivores and decomposers:

A. decomposers = fungi and bacteria

B. detritivores are invertebrates (insects, worms, etc)

C. decomposers return nutrients to the soil

D. detritivores are consumers that tend to feed on dead tissue

E. All of the above

28. Adaptation occurs within a(n):

A. individual over its lifetime

B. population over the course of a single breeding season

C. species over generations

D. all of the above

E. none of the above

29.The data suggests that global climate change stems from what human activity?

A)burning of fossil fuels

B)depleting the ozone layer

C)the burying of toxic wastes

D)the incineration of municipal wastes

E)a and b but not c and d

30.The number of individuals of a species that can be maintained in an area (by the resources in that area) over time is termed the area’s:

A)maximum level

B)carrying capacity

C)stable peak

D)niche optimum

E)biotic potential

31. The idea that the City of New York would spend money to buy land around their reservoirs in the Catskills (because the land acts a natural filtration system) instead of spending money to build a water filtration plant to clean the water as it arrives in NYC from the reservoirs is an example of the recognition of….. (note: this is a highly simplified description)

A. law of conservation of matter

B. law of conservation of energy

C. the 2nd law of thermodynamics (the entropy law)

D. external costs

E. ecosystem services

32. Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of

A. different kinds of organisms within a community or ecosystem.

B. different versions of the same gene in an ecological community.

C. sizes, colors, and shapes of organisms within an ecological community.

D. trophic levels in a biological community.

E. different microhabitats in an ecosystem.

33. The HIPPO or HIPPCO acronym refers to

A. causes of biodiversity loss

B. the gases implicated in global climate change

C. the steps needed to stabilize human population growth

D. the alternative energies needed to lead to a sustainable energy future

E. none of the above

34. The idea that our activities and /or the products we produce often result in an impact on the environment and that impact can be expressed in dollars and cents that someone must pay for and humans often ignore this reality and pass “the bill” on to the next generation is termed:

a)ecological footprint

b)ecological services


d)eutrophicatione)external costs/economic externalities

35. I=P x A x T refers to

A. An equation to explain the origin of biodiversity loss

B. An equation to explain population growth

C. An equation to explain the origin of human impact on the environment

D. An equation to explain the economics of environmental cleanup

E. An equation to explain the costs of developing a sustaiunable energy future

36. Sustainable agriculture looks at:

A. soil as a renewable resource

B. long term productivity vs. short term economic gains

C. population control as important

D. all of the above

E. none of the above

37. Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a decrease in biodiversity

A. True

B. False

38. An invasive species is one that

A. is non native to an area

B. is usually introduced by humans either intentionally or by accident

C. is very successful in its habitat

D. crowds out or out competes other organisms

E. all of the above may describe invasive species

39. The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is

A. uncontrolled sport hunting in the developed world.

B. commercial harvesting of wildlife in Africa.

C. drought conditions caused by the greenhouse effect.

D. habitat destruction worldwide.

E. none of the above

40. One who tends to believe the world’s resources are limited:

a)Neo- Malthusian


41. One who tends to believe that technology is the solution to our environmental problems:

a)Neo- Malthusian


42.Brought about the requirement for the Environmental Impact Statement for projects with potentially significant environmental impacts at the Federal Government level.

a)Kyoto Protocol

b)CERCLA (Superfund)

c)NEPA(National Environmental Policy Act)

d)Montreal Protocol e)ESA(Endangered Species Act)

43.Which of the following was a “worldwide” attempt to deal with ozone depletion:

a)Kyoto Protocol

b)CERCLA (Superfund)

c)NEPA(National Environmental Policy Act)

d)Montreal Protocol

e)ESA(Endangered Species Act)

44. What is the basis of the statement that we could feed more people if we would all eat grain rather than feeding it to livestock and then eating meat (not that I am advocating one diet over another)?

A. the First Law of Thermodynamics

B. the Second Law of Thermodynamics

C. Law of Conservation of Matter

D. none of the above, the statement is not true

E. none of the above but the statement is true

45. A keystone species is a species that plays a major role in a biological community as a result of its tremendous abundance in the community (keystone species tend to be the most abundant organism in the community).

A. True

B. False

C. Not necessarily

46. Natural populations may grow

A. exponentially

B. logistically

C. either a or b depending on the environmental conditions

47. When a species population changes from exponential growth(J-shaped curve) to logistic growth(S-shaped curve) it usually does so where?

A. when the population size is at or near the carrying capacity

B. when the population size has far exceeded the carrying capacity

C. when the population has no predators to keep it in check

D. when the population has no disease to keep it in check

E. c and d

48. The Kyoto Protocol (the international agreement dealing with climate change) was ratified by the United States.

A. True

B. False

49. Smart Growth Principles (when developing today and into the future) would include fostering a sense of place, creating walkable neighborhoods, using compact building designs among other principles.

A. True

B. False

50. The idea that poor countries would conserve their biological resources rather than develop them and in turn the poor country would be relieved of some of its financial obligations is known as a

A)debt for nature swap

B)biodiversity hot spots

C)gap analysis

D)GDP transfer

51. The biomagnification/bioaccumulation of DDT demonstrates that higher trophic level organisms can concentrate fat soluble toxins in greater quantities than lower trophic level organisms.

A. True

B. False

52. In theory risk assessment analysis includes:

A .the public’s perception of the issue

B. objective scientific understanding of the issue

C. recognition of economic costs and benefits of the issue

D. all of the above

E. a and b but not c

53. Human population growth over history is represented mathematically as a(n):

A)J-shaped curve

B)straight line

C)L-shaped curve


E)S-shaped curve

54)An example of a non-renewable resource would be:

A)solar power


C)natural gas

D)water E)b and c

55) If the doubling time for a human population decreases that would mean the population is likely to see its population size ________________ in the future.

A. Increase

B. Decrease

C. Remain the same

56)The ozone layer is responsible for screening out 95- 99% of incoming:

A)infrared energy (IR)

B)solar energy

C)ultraviolet radiation (UV)

D)atomic energy E)heat

57) The advantages of solar or wind energy are (as opposed to fossil fuels):

A)they are non polluting

B)the source of the energy is free

C)they are found in nearly every country to some degree

D)localized production is possible

E)all of the above

58) The Endangered Species Act of 1973 authorized the United States Federal Government to protect organisms listed as endangered (in danger of extinction) as well as protecting the habitats of those listed organisms.



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