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Business Ethics

1.  Which of the following statements is most accurate?

  A. Ethics of principles is based on consequences, whereas utilitarianism is based on rules.

B. Ethics of principles is based on self-interest, whereas utilitarianism is based on human rights.

C. Ethics of principles is based on human rights, whereas utilitarianism is based on self-interest.

D. Ethics of principles is based on rules, whereas utilitarianism is based on consequences.

2.  Which of the following statements reflects the approach of a principle-based ethical tradition?

 A. Obey the law.       B. Maximize the overall good.

C. Ends justify the means.    D. The fittest will survive.

3.  _______ is the final step in the ethical decision-making process.

  A. Identifying new ethical dilemmas to tackle

B. Monitoring and learning from outcomes

C. Corresponding with the stakeholders

D. Listing the eventualities that may result from the decision

4.  The omission known as change blindness occurs when decision makers

  A. want to bring about a change on a whim.

B. fail to notice gradual changes over time.

C. are adamant on maintaining status quo due to a fear of change.

D. overlook a sudden change.

5.  The failure of personal ethics within companies like Enron and WorldCom led to the passage of the _______ Act.

 A. Brooks      B. Sarbanes-Oxley     C. Clinger-Cohen      D. Gramm-Leach-Bliley

6.  The _______ Act was passed in April 2009 to amend the executive compensation provisions of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and to prohibit unreasonable and excessive compensation and compensation not based on performance standards.

 A. Grayson-Himes Pay for Performance   B. Statutory Pay-As-You-Go

C. Employee Pay Comparability       D. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Performance and Results

7.  The concept of individuals’ completeness within themselves and consistent alignment of their actions with deeply held beliefs is known as

A. honesty.   B. human well-being.   C. personal integrity.    D. virtue ethics.

8.  Theoretical reasoning is reasoning about what we

 A. actually do.     B. should do.    C. should believe.     D. actually believe.

9.  Which of the following best describes ethics?

 A. An academic discipline that originated in the early 1900s

B. A descriptive approach that provides an account of how and why people act the way they do

C. A scientific approach such as psychology and sociology

D. The study of how human beings should properly live their lives

10.  Dramatic examples of tyrannical regimes in history demonstrate that

 A. just societies can be achieved only through strict enforcement of ethical codes.

B. societies valuing freedom welcome laws that require more than the ethical minimum.

C. one’s ethical responsibility may run counter to the law.

D. obedience to the law almost always makes people indifferent toward their ethical duties.

11.  _______ understanding of social justice argues that freedom from coercion by others is the most central element of social justice.

 A. Libertarian    B. Egalitarian     C. Anarchist     D. Conservative

12.  Ethics has been a focus of discussion for human beings for millennia because, generally speaking, people are interested in the question of what makes a/an

 A. meaningful human life.  B. ethical description. C. legal right. D. economically viable business.

13.  _______ are fundamental to theories of social justice upon which capitalist economies have been built.

A. Fraternity and autocracy       B. Consideration and kindness

C. Kinship and cooperation        D. Liberty and equality

14.  _______ directs us to make decisions based on overall consequences of our actions.

 A. Utilitarianism    B. Role ethics      C. Virtue ethics     D. Deontology

15.  _______ ethics assert that individual rights and duties are fundamental, and thus can also be referred to as a rights-based or duty-based approach to ethics.

 A. Virtue-based    B. Principle-based    C. Pragmatic     D. Role

16.  No group could function if members were free at all times to decide for themselves what to do and how to act. Which of the following functions serves to organize and ease relations among individuals?

 A. Autocracy     B. Social contract    C. Self-rule      D. Personal norms

17.  Morality is the aspect of ethics that we can refer to as

A. leadership.    B. independence.     C. rationality.    D. personal integrity.

18.  _______ functions ensure the integrity and proper functioning of economic, legal, or financial systems.

A. Gatekeeper     B. Marketing       C. Administrative      D. Social

19.  Social sciences such as psychology and sociology are different from ethics because they’re _______ in nature.     

 A. descriptive   B. clinical   C. conjectural    D. normative

20.  Within a business setting, individuals must consider the ethical implications of both personal and professional

 A. laws.      B. decision making.    C. desires.    D. self-interest.

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