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CS420/520 Homework Assignment 3: Datapath DP.1  Describe the effect that a single stuck-at-0 faults (i.e., regardless of which itshould be, the signal is always 0) would have on the multiplexors in the single-cycle datapath shown in the following figure. Which instructions (R-type, Imme, load, store, and branch), if any, would NOT work? Consider each of the following faults separately: RegDst = 0, ALUSrc = 0, MemtoReg = 0, Zero = 0.DP.2  This exercise is similar to Exercise DP.1. But this time consider stuck-at-1 faults (i.e., regardless of which it should be, the signal is always 1). Which instructions (R-type, Imme, Base+Offset, and PC-Relative), if any, would NOT work? Consider each of the following faults separately: RegDst = 1, ALUSrc = 1, MemtoReg = 1, Zero = 1. DP.5  We wish to add the instruction addi (add immediate) to the single-cycle datapath. Add any datapaths and control signals, if necessary, to the single-cycle datapath and show the necessary addition to the following control table. A Single Cycle Datapath32ALUctrClkbusWRegWr3232busA32busB5 5 5Rw Ra Rb32 32-bitRegistersRsRtRtRdRegDstExtenderMuxMux3216imm16ALUSrcExtOpMuxMemtoRegClkData InWrEn32AdrDataMemory32MemWrALUInstructionFetch UnitClkZeroInstruction<31:0>JumpBranch01011 0<21:25><16:20><11:15><0:15>Rs Rt Rd Imm16Instruction RegDst ALUSrc Mem- Reg Rew Write Mem Write Branch R-format 1 0 0 1 0 0 LW 0 1 1 1 0 0 SW X 1 X 0 1 0 BEQ X 0 X 0 0 1 The setting of the control lines is completely determined by the opcode fields of the instruction. DP.7  This exercise is similar to Exercise DP.5, except that we wish to add the instruction bne (branch if not equal) to the single-cycle datapath shown in the figure on the previous page. (note that beq should still be supported at the same time). * you do not need to draw the whole figure again, but show the modifications and additions for bne. You may refer to beq in Power Point slides, datapath (page 40). DP.8  If we want to add some storage element to our datapath. The storage element will be updated by some instructions, but will not be updated by some other instructions. Do we always need to have a clock? Do we always need to have a Write Enable signal? In what situation that we need a clock signal, but not Write Enable signal for a storage element in some datapath? DP.9  Use the drawing of PLA Implementation of for Control (refer to Power Point slides, datapath), to show the PLA implementation for “Extop” signal. The truth table for “Extop” is on Power Point slides, datapath, page 55. DP.10  What is the key motivation that a multi-cycle datapath can improve the performance of the single cycle datapath? Is it possible that a single-cycle datapath has better performance than a multi-cycle datapath, give a situation to show. DP.11What function units can be used more than once per instruction in a multi-cycle datapath? How they are used (in which stage, for what purpose)? DP.12  In estimating the performance of the single-cycle implementation shown in the following figure, we assume that only the major functional units have any delay (i.e., the delay of the multiplexors, control unit, PC access, sign extension unit, and wires is considered to be negligible). Assume the following delay: ALU: 2ns, Register File: 1ns, Instruction Memory: 2ns, Data Memory:2 ns. Adder for PC + 4: Xns Adder for branch address computation: Yns a) What would the clock cycle time be if X = 3 and Y = 3? b) What would the clock cycle time be if X = 5 and Y =5? c) What would the clock cycle time be if X = 1 and Y = 8? You must show the procedure details for each answer you give.