A researcher plans to compare two treatment conditions by measuring one sample in treatment 1 and a second sample in treatment 2. The researcher will then compare the scores for the two treatments. If there is a difference between the two groups of scores?a. Briefly explain how the difference may have been caused by the treatments.b. Briefly explain how the difference simply may be sampling error. 2. A researcher is interested in the relationship between caffeine consumption and activity level for elementary school children. A sample of 20 children is obtained and the children are separated into two roughly equivalent groups. The children in one group are given a drink containing 300 mg of caffeine and the other group gets a group with no caffeine. The researcher then records the level of activity for each child during a 30-minute session on the playground. Is this an experimentalor a correlational study? Explain your answer.3. Oxytocin is a naturally occurring brain chemical that is nicknamed the love hormone because it seems to play a role in the formation of social relationships such as mating pairs and parent-child bonding. A recent study demonstrated that oxytocin appears to increase peoples tendency to trust others (Kosfeld, Heinrichs, Zak, Fischbacher, and Fehr, 2005). Using an investment game, the study demonstrated that people who inhaled oxytocin were more likely to give their money to a trustee compared to people who inhaled an inactive placebo. For this experimental study, identify the independent variable and the dependent variable.
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